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34 Cards in this Set

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what is the main function of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala?
places emotional significance on events
INWARD emotional responses
what is the main function fo the central nucleus of amygdala?
nucleus for OUTWARD emotional response (autonomic and motor)
what is the function of the corticomedial nucleus?
related to olfaction and appetite
where does the input into the central and corticomedial nuclei of amygdala come from?
Afferents:
1. Sensory information (taste, pain, auditory, olfactory)
2. Ventromedial and lateral hypothalamus
3. Basolaterla amygdala nucleus
4. Septal nuclei
5. Raphe nuclei
6. Locus ceruleus
7. Bed nucleus of stria terminalis
what information is projected to the corticomedial nuclei of amydala from bed nucleus of stria medullaris?
coordination of outward emotional expression, coordinated activation/inhibition of brainstem nuclei and spinal cord nuclei
what information is projected to the corticomedial nuclei of amygdala from the basolateral amygdala nucleus?
highly processed information including vision
what information is projected to corticomedial nuclei of amygdala from the ventromedial and lateral hypothalamus?
appetite and satiety
efferent output from Central amygdala
lateral hypothalamus, septal nuclei of basal forebrain --- outward emotion expression ----- output to hypothalamus brainstem, and spinal cord --- Neuroendocrine, autonomic, sympathetic & PS somatic motor system
efferents from amygdala through ventral amygdalofugal pathway and medial forebrain bundle
to reticular formation, locus ceruleus, raphe nucleus, solitary nucleus, brainstem autonomic nuclei, midbrain PAG, ventral tegmentum
what are the effects of the efferents of the ventral amygdalofugual pathway?
awareness, autonomic response, somatic motor response
tract the projection from the amygdala to the habenulointerpeduncular tract.
corticomedial amygdala -- stria terminalis -- septal nuclei of basal forebrain -- stria medullaris -- habenula -- habenulointerpeduncular tract --- interpedunclular nucleus, ventral tegemental area, PAG, Raphe nuclei
what does the projection from the amygdala cortcomedial nuclei to hypothalamus influence?
autonomic, neuroendocrine, and feeding responses
what does the projection from amygdala to basal forebrain septal nuclei influnce?
GVE nuclei in brainstem via central tegmental tract
Reward system incentive and motivation
Pain modulation
true or false
basolateral n. of amygdala projects to coticomedial n. of amygdala for outward physical manifestation of inward emotion
TRUE
what do the efferent projections from basolateral n. of amygdala express?
expression of inner emotion and motivation
where do the afferent information into the basolateral n. of amygdala come from?
dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus
prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus
Parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampal formation, temporal lobes, insular cortex
central nucleus of amygdala
what type of information is delivered to basolaterla amygdala from prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus?
attention and motivation information
what type of information is relayed to basolateral amygdala from parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampal formation, and temporal lobes, and insular cortex?
processed sensory information
where does the basolateral amygdala project to?
cortex
basal forebrain
dorsomedial thalamic nucleus
ventral striatum
why does basolateral amygdala project to the parahippocampal cortex and hippocampal formation?
coloring, emotional valence, or emotional context on memory consolidation
what part of the parahippocampal cortex does the basolateral amygdala project to?
entorhinal cortex
how many layers is the entorhinal cortex of parahippocampal formation?
6 layers
how many layers is subiculum?
subiculum is a transitional cortex between 3 and 6 layers thick
what produces the cholinergic tone of the cerebral cortex?
the projection from basolateral amygdala through stria terminalis to basal forebrain
what NT is secreted from the basal forebrain?
ACh
what cortex is involved in processing emotions and motivation and in learning and memory?
anterior cingulate gyrus and orbital frontal cortex
this receives projections from basolateral amygdala through the ventral amygdalofugal pathway
what projection from basolateral amygdala is important in motivational aspects of attention?
uncinate fasciculus to cingulate gyrus and prefrontal cortex
ex. prefrontal cortex is important in restraint, initiative, and order
what type of pathophysiology will produce an emotionally flat individual but will eliminate or decrease aggressive behavior?
Amygdalectomies

we all might need one of these once neuro is over
what does removal of both temporal lobes cause?
1. emotional changes
2. psychic blindness
3. over attentiveness
4. sexual hyperactivity
in the removal of temporal lobes what is the sexual hyperactivity a compensation for?
removal of the occipital-temproal love removes the "what" visual pathway and is compensated for by the "where stream"
in removal of the temporal lobes why is there over attentiveness observed?
orient to all stimuli hyperorality
-removal of "what" pathway
compensation from somatosensory cortex
in removal of temporal lobes what type of emotional changes are observed? why?
tame and placid
removal of the amygdala
If a patient will indiscriminately approach and examine something even though it might be harmful what has occured?
this is called psychic blindness
damage to the temporal lobes may have occurred which removed the "what" visual pathway
why do people have panic attacks?
inappropriate or excessive activity of the amygdala