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24 Cards in this Set

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Describe the 3 basic pathophysiologic mechanisms of PVD?
1. structural changes in vessel wall; 2. narrowing of the lumen; 3. spasm of vascular smooth muscle
The aorta loses its elasticity with time. Diseases of the aorta appear in 3 different conditions. Name them.
Aneurysm, Dissection, Obstruction (Atherosclerosis)
What is the difference between a "true" and "pseudo" aneurysm?
True implies dilatation of all 3 layers while pseudo is a contained rupture (hematoma/clot) in the wall.
What are the common degenerative changes that cause ascending aortic aneurysm? descending aortic aneurysm?
AAA - cystic medial degeneration (CT disorders); DAA - atherosclerosis
Why is back pain a common symptomatic presentation in Aortic Aneurysm?
The common Abdominal aortic aneurysm often erodes away vertebrae.
What is the current treatment options for Aortic Aneurysm?
Prosthetic surgical graft or surgical repair
What is aortic Dissection?
A blood filled channel divides the medial layers creating a split between the intima and adventita layers.
What aortic segment is most commonly affected in Aortic Dissection?
Ascending Thoracic Aorta
What is Type A & B mean with Aortic Dissection?
Type A - Ascending portion;
Type B - Descending portion
How is acute aortic dissection treated?
1st one must arrest progression of the dissection (reduce systolic BP); 2nd in many Type A cases immediate surgical repair; if type b aggressive therapy is tried first since surgery does not improve outcome!
True/False - Hemodynamic changes alone account for changes in exercise capacity in PAD patients.
False - muscle denervation also occurs
Peripheral Claudication can lead to what PE auscultated finding?
bruits
What is vasculitis? What causes it?
Inflammation of the vessel wall resulting from immune complex deposition or autoimmune attack of the vessel wall.
What is Polyarteritis nodosa?
Necrotizing systemic vasculitis of small/med arterities characterized by nodules and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies.
What is Takayasu's arteritis?
Unknown cause of vasculitis that targets the aorta and often presents as a "pulseless disease".
What is giant cell arteritis (aka temporal arteritis)?
Vasculitis disease that most commonly involves the cranial vessels and the aortic arches. Often presents with eye pressure and headache.
What is thromboangiitis obliterans?
Form of vasculitis that is strongly associated with cigarrette smoking and Raynaud's phenomenon.
What is a Raynaud's Phenomenon?
Disease causing arterial spasm in the digital arteries with color change from white to cyanosis to ruddy color in fingers. This resuslts in pain, paresthesia or numbness in the digits.
(Blank) are dilate tortuous superficial vessels that often develop in the lower extremitis.
Varicose Veins
What is the difference between primary and secondary Varicose veins?
primary initial abnormality superficial, secondary deep
What consequence of DVT is most feared? What scenario often produces DVT?
Pulmonary Embolism; Prolonged Stasis
Ruling out the diagnosis of DVT can be accomplished by measurement of serum (blank).
D-Dimer Level
What is given in the initial treatment plan of DVT?
LMWH followed by warfarin
True/False - Superficial Thrombophlebitis is often a complication of IV catheterization but does not lead to pulmonary embolism.
True