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150 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Annuals
complete life cycle in one year and have little or no secondary growth
Anther
part of a stamen that produces and contains pollen
Antipodal cells
group of cells, situated at the opposite end to the micropyle
Apomixis
Asexual production of seeds
Bracts
A leaflike or scalelike plant part, usually small, sometimes showy or brightly colored, and located just below a flower, a flower stalk, or an inflorescence
Biennials
two years to complete life cycle. first year, store carbohydrates. second year, stored carbohydrates are used to produce flowers and seeds
Bulbs
fleshy, modified leaves for food storage
Cadastral genes
refine floral organ identity gene expression within whorls
Circadian oscillations
components of the biological clocks that regulate the activities of organisms in relation to environmental cycles and provide an internal temporal framework
Circadian rhythms
a roughly 24-hour cycle in the biochemical, physiological, or behavioural processes of living entities, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria
Critical day length
The period of daylight, specific in length for any given species, that appears to initiate flowering
Critical night length
The period of darkness, specific in length for any given species, that appears to initiate flowering
Complete flower
having all four floral parts: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels
Corms
disc-like underground stems that consist primarily of stem tissue
Cotyledon
nutrient storage area in angiosperm seeds
Day-neutral plants
Do not rely on length of day or night to control flowering or other responses
Dioecious
Plants that bear either male-only or female-only flowers on an individual plant
Double fertilization
One sperm cell fuses with egg cell, forming 2n zygote. Other sperm cell fuses with two polar nuclei in central cell, forming triploid nucleus
Embryo sac
megagametophyte of a seed plant, within which the embryo develops
Endosperm
Triploid (3n) nutritive tissue within seeds of flowering plants, surrounding and absorbed by the embryo
Floral meristems
give rise to a flower. produces four whorls or spirals of organs, with very short internodes
Florigen
hormone-like molecules responsible for controlling and/or triggering flowering
FOI genes
homeotic genes –major regulatory genes that control other genes
Fruit
Develops from ovary wall. carpel becomes wall of fruit surrounding seed. protect seed from damage by animals and infection by microbes
Generative cell
one of two haploid 1n cells within the pollen grain in seed plants undergoes one mitotic division to produce two 1n sperm cells
Grafting
Process of attaching bud or piece of stem from one plant onto root or stem (with roots) of another plant
Imperfect flower
have only functional stamens or only functional carpels
Inflorescence
an orderly cluster of flowers
Inflorescence meristem
produces bracts and new meristems in angle between bract and stem
Integuments
tissues surrounding megasporangium that develop into the seed coat
indeterminate growth
Apical meristems continuously produce leaves, stems, and axillary buds
Long-day plant
Flower when day is longer than critical maximum. Flower in midsummer
Meristem
the tissue in most plants consisting of undifferentiated cells found in zones of the plant where growth can take place
Megagametophyte
The female gametophyte that arises from a megaspore of a heterosporous plant.
Megasporangium
female sporangia produce megasporocytes that yield megaspores
Megaspores
give rise to a female gametophyte
Microgametophyte
male gametophyte that develops from the microspores of heterosporous plants. The pollen grains of gymnosperms and angiosperms
Microsporangium
produces spores that give rise to male gametophytes
Microspores
develops a spore wall and divides mitotically to form two 1n cells in each pollen grain (microgametophyte)
Megasporocyte
undergoes meiosis to produce four 1n megaspores —all but one degenerates
Microsporocyte
2n cell, located in the anter, that undergoes meiosis to produce four 1n microspores
Monoecious
Plants that bear both male and female flowers on an individual plant
Ovary
at base of pistil. containing ovules, each of which contain a megasporangium
Ovule
a small body in seed-bearing plants that consists of the integument(s), nucellus, and embryosac (containing the egg cell) and develops into the seed after fertilization
Perfect flower
have both functional stamens and carpels
Perennials
live three or more years. Typically flower every year
Pericarp
The wall of a ripened ovary; fruit wall
Photoperiodism
control of flowering and other responses by length of day or night. synchronizes flowering in the same species so that cross-pollination and successful reproduction is promoted
Plantlets
a tiny version of a plant still attached somewhere to its parent plant. The plantlets obtain food from the parent plant until they are established
Pistil
composed of one or more carpels
Polar nuclei
two haploid nuclei found in the centre of the embryo sac after division of the megaspore. They combine with one sperm cell to form the 3n (triploid) endosperm
Pollen grain
one of the granular microspores that occur in pollen and give rise to the male gametophyte of a seed plant
Pollen tube
grows through style to reach ovule. Downward growth is guided by chemical signal released by synergids
Pollination
transfer of pollen from anther to stigma
Rhizomes
horizontal underground stems that give rise to new shoots
Runners
horizontal stems that form roots at intervals and can develop into new plants
Scion
part grafted onto the stock
Self-incompatibility
When plants reject pollen from their own flowers. promotes outcrossing and increases heterozygosity. S gene is responsible for self-incompatibility
Short-day plants
Flower when day is shorter than critical maximum. Flower in late summer or fall
Stamen
male sex organs, has a filament with two-lobed anther, containing four fused microsporangia
Stigma
receptive tip of a carpel recieves pollen at pollination
Stock
Root-bearing plant (in grafting)
Stolons
horizontal stems that form roots at intervals and can develop into new plants
Style
stalk of pistil, with stigma at the end
Suckers
young plants that sprout from the horizontal roots of a parent plant. form interconnected stands of genetically identical individuals
Suspensor
a daughter cell that becomes a supporting structure after double fertilization
Synergids
one of two small cells lying near the micropyle of the embryo sac of an angiosperm. attract pollen tube and receive sperm nuclei
Tip layers
branches that sag to the ground and a new plant grows from the branch tip
Tissue culture
a practice used to propagate plants under sterile conditions, often to produce clones of a plant
Torpedo stage
Tissues begin to differentiate. Shoot apex forms between cotyledons. Root apex forms at other end
Totipotency
undifferentiated cells can give rise to entire plants
Tube cell
The cell in the pollen grain that develops into the pollen tube
Tubers
enlarged underground stems called
Vegetative reproduction
A form of asexual reproduction in plants, in which multicellular structures become detached from the parent plant and develop into new individuals that are genetically identical to the parent plant
Vernalization
Process of inducing flowering by low temperatures
Annuals
complete life cycle in one year and have little or no secondary growth
Anther
part of a stamen that produces and contains pollen
Antipodal cells
group of cells, situated at the opposite end to the micropyle
Apomixis
Asexual production of seeds
Bracts
A leaflike or scalelike plant part, usually small, sometimes showy or brightly colored, and located just below a flower, a flower stalk, or an inflorescence
Biennials
two years to complete life cycle. first year, store carbohydrates. second year, stored carbohydrates are used to produce flowers and seeds
Bulbs
fleshy, modified leaves for food storage
Cadastral genes
refine floral organ identity gene expression within whorls
Circadian oscillations
components of the biological clocks that regulate the activities of organisms in relation to environmental cycles and provide an internal temporal framework
Circadian rhythms
a roughly 24-hour cycle in the biochemical, physiological, or behavioural processes of living entities, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria
Critical day length
The period of daylight, specific in length for any given species, that appears to initiate flowering
Critical night length
The period of darkness, specific in length for any given species, that appears to initiate flowering
Complete flower
having all four floral parts: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels
Corms
disc-like underground stems that consist primarily of stem tissue
Cotyledon
nutrient storage area in angiosperm seeds
Day-neutral plants
Do not rely on length of day or night to control flowering or other responses
Dioecious
Plants that bear either male-only or female-only flowers on an individual plant
Double fertilization
One sperm cell fuses with egg cell, forming 2n zygote. Other sperm cell fuses with two polar nuclei in central cell, forming triploid nucleus
Embryo sac
megagametophyte of a seed plant, within which the embryo develops
Endosperm
Triploid (3n) nutritive tissue within seeds of flowering plants, surrounding and absorbed by the embryo
Floral meristems
give rise to a flower. produces four whorls or spirals of organs, with very short internodes
Florigen
hormone-like molecules responsible for controlling and/or triggering flowering
FOI genes
homeotic genes –major regulatory genes that control other genes
Fruit
Develops from ovary wall. carpel becomes wall of fruit surrounding seed. protect seed from damage by animals and infection by microbes
Generative cell
one of two haploid 1n cells within the pollen grain in seed plants undergoes one mitotic division to produce two 1n sperm cells
Grafting
Process of attaching bud or piece of stem from one plant onto root or stem (with roots) of another plant
Imperfect flower
have only functional stamens or only functional carpels
Inflorescence
an orderly cluster of flowers
Inflorescence meristem
produces bracts and new meristems in angle between bract and stem
Integuments
tissues surrounding megasporangium that develop into the seed coat
indeterminate growth
Apical meristems continuously produce leaves, stems, and axillary buds
Long-day plant
Flower when day is longer than critical maximum. Flower in midsummer
Meristem
the tissue in most plants consisting of undifferentiated cells found in zones of the plant where growth can take place
Megagametophyte
The female gametophyte that arises from a megaspore of a heterosporous plant.
Megasporangium
female sporangia produce megasporocytes that yield megaspores
Megaspores
give rise to a female gametophyte
Microgametophyte
male gametophyte that develops from the microspores of heterosporous plants. The pollen grains of gymnosperms and angiosperms
Microsporangium
produces spores that give rise to male gametophytes
Microspores
develops a spore wall and divides mitotically to form two 1n cells in each pollen grain (microgametophyte)
Megasporocyte
undergoes meiosis to produce four 1n megaspores —all but one degenerates
Microsporocyte
2n cell, located in the anter, that undergoes meiosis to produce four 1n microspores
Monoecious
Plants that bear both male and female flowers on an individual plant
Ovary
at base of pistil. containing ovules, each of which contain a megasporangium
Ovule
a small body in seed-bearing plants that consists of the integument(s), nucellus, and embryosac (containing the egg cell) and develops into the seed after fertilization
Perfect flower
have both functional stamens and carpels
Perennials
live three or more years. Typically flower every year
Pericarp
The wall of a ripened ovary; fruit wall
Photoperiodism
control of flowering and other responses by length of day or night. synchronizes flowering in the same species so that cross-pollination and successful reproduction is promoted
Plantlets
a tiny version of a plant still attached somewhere to its parent plant. The plantlets obtain food from the parent plant until they are established
Pistil
composed of one or more carpels
Polar nuclei
two haploid nuclei found in the centre of the embryo sac after division of the megaspore. They combine with one sperm cell to form the 3n (triploid) endosperm
Pollen grain
one of the granular microspores that occur in pollen and give rise to the male gametophyte of a seed plant
Pollen tube
grows through style to reach ovule. Downward growth is guided by chemical signal released by synergids
Pollination
transfer of pollen from anther to stigma
Rhizomes
horizontal underground stems that give rise to new shoots
Runners
horizontal stems that form roots at intervals and can develop into new plants
Scion
part grafted onto the stock
Self-incompatibility
When plants reject pollen from their own flowers. promotes outcrossing and increases heterozygosity. S gene is responsible for self-incompatibility
Short-day plants
Flower when day is shorter than critical maximum. Flower in late summer or fall
Stamen
male sex organs, has a filament with two-lobed anther, containing four fused microsporangia
Stigma
receptive tip of a carpel recieves pollen at pollination
Stock
Root-bearing plant (in grafting)
Stolons
horizontal stems that form roots at intervals and can develop into new plants
Style
stalk of pistil, with stigma at the end
Suckers
young plants that sprout from the horizontal roots of a parent plant. form interconnected stands of genetically identical individuals
Suspensor
a daughter cell that becomes a supporting structure after double fertilization
Synergids
one of two small cells lying near the micropyle of the embryo sac of an angiosperm. attract pollen tube and receive sperm nuclei
Tip layers
branches that sag to the ground and a new plant grows from the branch tip
Tissue culture
a practice used to propagate plants under sterile conditions, often to produce clones of a plant
Torpedo stage
Tissues begin to differentiate. Shoot apex forms between cotyledons. Root apex forms at other end
Totipotency
undifferentiated cells can give rise to entire plants
Tube cell
The cell in the pollen grain that develops into the pollen tube
Tubers
enlarged underground stems called
Vegetative reproduction
A form of asexual reproduction in plants, in which multicellular structures become detached from the parent plant and develop into new individuals that are genetically identical to the parent plant
Vernalization
Process of inducing flowering by low temperatures