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108 Cards in this Set

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Prenatal Dev
Multiple gene characteristics-Ht, Wt, intelligence and personality
Single Gene Characteristics-Brown eyes hair-etc
Genotype=genetic inheritance
Phenotype=observed characteristics
Prenatal Dev
Germinal Stage-Zygote-2wks
Embryonic Stage-3rd-8th Wk
Fetal Stage -9th Wk-Birth
Birth Defect Causes
Recessive Gene Disorders
Sickle-cell Anemia,
Tay-Sachs, Cystic Fibrosis
PKU-Amino Acids
Chromosomal abnormalities
Down's Syndrome, Turner's Klinefelter's and Fragile X Syndromes
Teratogens
Embyronic Stage most vulnerable 3rd-6th Week
Alcohol-FAS
Narcotics-Neonatal abstinence syndrome
withdrawal-poor academic achievement
Cocaine-SIDS, seizures, low birthweight, cognitive, behavioral problems in early school yrs.
Nicotine-low birthweight, SIDs, resperatory diseases, emotional and social disturbances
Lead-Low birthweight-MR
Maternal Health
Rubella-Heart defects, blindness, deafness and MR
HIV/AIDS transmission 35-60%, small size increased infections, cognitive and physical delays
Malnutrition-miscarriage, low birth weight, MR, brain damage
Stress-Low birth weight, hyperactive, irritable, irregular feeding, sleeping and bowel habits
Anoxia-delayed Motor and cognitive dev, MR and Cerebral palsy
Prematurity-prior to 37 wks low SES, teen mothers, malnutrition, drg use often catch up w/ peers by 2-3
Risk/Resillence-marital discord, low SES, large fm size
Physical Dev-Vision
Birth 20 feet, 6 mos=Adult
2-5 days preference human faces
1 month discriminate bt faces of mother and others
2 mos-limited color vision by 2 mos.
4-6 mos depth perception
Physical Dev-Audition
Fetus hears sounds during last months.
Newborn only slightly less sensitive than adults
some localization is apparent early, then lost during months 2-4 then regained
3 months distinguish bt voices, prefers mother's voice
Physical Dev-Taste/Smell
Newborns -respond to different tastes and odors
preference for sweet liquids, turn from strong unpleasant tastes.
Physical Dev-Pain
Sensitive at birth increases 1st 5 days of life
Physical Dev-Reflexes
Babinski-toes fan out when soles of feet are tickled
Rooting-turns head in direction of touch applied to cheek
Moro-flings arms and legs outward and then toward the body in response to loud sound or loss of support
Stepping-makes coordinated walking movements when held upright w/ feet touching surface.
Physical Dev-Nervous System
Birth brain 25% adult wgt.
Central Cortex almost completely undeveloped
1-3 Months.motor and sensory areas grow rapidly
2 yrs 80% of adult wgt
16 Full adult wgt
Lateralization
Language is lateralized early
hand preference at about 4 yrs.

Age 30 Brain shrinkage loss of neurons
60 brain atrophy-cortex, hippocampus=locus ceruleus.
Physical Maturation
1-3 Mos=raise chin, turn head,play w/hands & fingers, brings objects in hand to mouth
4-6 Mos-Rolls onto back, sits on lap-reaches & grasps-sits alone-stands w/ help teeth appear
7-9 mos= good coordination, sits alone w/ out support, begins crawling, pulls self to standing position
10-12 Mos-stands alone, walks w/ help, takes 1st steps alone.
Physical Maturation
13-15 mos walks alone, creeps up stairs, scribbles spontaneously, uses cup.
16-24 mos-runs clumsily, walks up stairs assisted, uses spoon, kicks ball turns pgs, uses toilet.
25-36 mos-jumps hand finger coordination, rides tricycle, dresses
Physical Maturation
Girls > physically mature in middle childhood-flexibility, agility,balance
Boys exceed girls in strength and gross motor abilities
Boys outperform girls in motor ability beginning in early adolescence
Adolescent spurt-Boys 13-14
Girls 11-12
Early maturation beneficial for boys negative for girls.
Chronic Illiness
31% children have chronic illness-respiratory allergies
Higher risk for psychological symptoms
Positive factors-severity of illness, high SES, 2 parent fm. little disfigurement, and parental adjustment.
Adolescence high risk for non-compliance.
Adolescent Drug-Use
Peaked in 1992-1996
Alcohol, tobacco and mj favorites
21% alcohol
18% cigarettes
8% mj
History of delinquent behavior, marital and job instability, illicit drugs
depression and respiratory
Physical Changes in Old Age
65-Vision
Presbyopia-loss of near vision
Loss of visual acuity
Reduced depth/color perception
75- hearing
50% or more hearing deficits
decreased ability to preceive high frequency sounds=lose voices in noise atmosphere
Taste/smell noticeable losses decling interest in food
Strength coordination/reaction time
behavioral slowing-due to CNS
benefit from strength training, defensive driving and improving reaction time.
Cognitive Dev-Piaget
Adaption
Assimilation-incorporation of new knowledge into existing schemeas
Accommodation-modifiction of existing schemas
Equillibrium-motivation for cognitive dev comes from drive toward cognitive balance
Cognitive Dev-Piaget-Stages
Sensorimotor-birth-2yrs
Object permance-8 mos
Understanding of causality-10 mos
Symbolic thought-18 mos
Cognitive Dev-Piaget-Stages
Preoperational-2-7
Symbolic function-extension of symbolic thought, allows child to learn through use of language, symbols
Precausal Learning-incomplete understanding of cause & effect.
Magical thinking
Animism
Egocentrism unable to imagine another's pt of view
unable to conserve
do not recognize reversibility
Centration-Focus on most noticeable features of objects.
Cognitive Dev-Piaget
Concrete Operational Stage-7-11 yrs
Mental operations-Logic
Conservation-numbers-then liquid-wgt-and displacement volume
Horizontal-decalage-gradual acquisition of conservation abilities
Cognitive Dev-Piaget
Formal Operational Stage 11+ yrs.
Abstract, relativistic and hypothetical thinking
Renewed egocentrism-adolescence
Personal Fable- one is unique not subject to laws of nature
Imagined audiance-one is center of attention
50% of adults reach this stage
Children may be more competent then Piaget predicts
Information Processing Theories
Cognitive dev-occurs by maturation and Experience
Acquisition of more effective techniques for handling info and increased storage ability
focus on specific processes-perception, memory, inference and rule usage
Cognitive ability is task focused.
Information Processing Theories
Vygotskyian Approach
Emphasis on social/cultural factors over biology
Cognitive dev first interpersonal then intrapersonal
Zone of proximal dev-descrepancy bt current developmental level and the level just beyond that can be reached when assisted
Scaffolding-temporary aids used by teachers to help id learn new knowledge-modeling,cues and encouraged alternative plans
Information Processing Theories
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model
Dev based on interactions bt id and his context
Microsystem immediate env-family, peers-teachers
Masosystem-interactions between components of Microsystem
Ecosystem-parents, work place, school board-community agencies
Macrosystem-cultural beliefs-economoic conditions, political ideologies
Memory through lifespan
Young Children
Limited working Memory
Ineffective use of memory Strategies
9-10 Strategies-rehersal, elaboration and organization
Adolescence-fine tuned strategies=used deliberately/selectively
Major difference bt children/teens/adults use of metamemory next
and metacognitions
Aging/memory
Recent LTM affected most
Problem encoding less likely to use strategies
Working memory of STM next
Reduced processing efficiency-perceptual speed
Remote LTM, mem span and sensory mem are relatively unaffected
episodic mem more affected than procedural or semantic mem.
Language Dev
Nativistic Approach-Chomsky
Biological Mechanisms are central-Universal patterns of language dev
Acquire language by being exposed to it
Children pass through same stages of dev
Ages 4-6 are critical for mastery
Language Dev
Interactionist Approach
Result of combination of biological and env factors
Stress social interactions=motherese,
expansionism.
Language Dev
Language Structure
Surface-Organization of words
Deep-underlying meaning of sentences
Transformational Grammer-Chomsky
Speaking-transform deep to surface
Listening-transform surface to deep.
Language Dev-Stages of Acguisition
Crying-Hunger,anger and pain.
Cooing/Babbling-6-8 wks initiates cooing-5 mos babbling-
9-14 Months narrow repertoire of sounds to native language
Deaf Children make repetitive, rhythemic gestures
Language Dev-Stages of Acguisition
Echolalilia and expressive Jargon 9 mos-12 mos
Holophrases 12-24 Mos represent whole phrases, sentences first words labels for people objects and events
Language Dev-Stages of Acguisition
Telegraphic Speech 18-24 Mos
Vocabulary Growth 16-36 Mos Rapid growth-1000 wds
Grammatically correct sentences 2.5-5 yrs
Metalinguistic awareness-ability to reflect on language as a communication tool
Language Dev-Stages of Acguisition
Girls speak earlier, articulate better and have fewer speech defects
Boys rely on language strategies that establish dominance, gain attention and involve giving orders
Girls use language that provides support and demonstrates attentiveness
Language Dev-Stages of Acguisition
Bilingualism and Education
Bilingual children do better on tasks measuring cognitive and language development
Code switching -alternating bt languages during a conversation
Bilingual children in bilingual programs acquire English and subject matter equal to english only programs.
Temperament, Personallity/ Identity
Basic Temperament-basic disposition affected by heredity and partially visible at birth
identical twins more similar than fraternal twins
Kagan-Behavioral inhibition
Continuity of level of inhibition 21 mos-7.5 yrs
Temperament, Personallity/ Identity
Thomas/chase 9 Basic qualities
Easy children
Difficult children
Slow to warm up children
Theories of Personality Dev
Freud
Id's Libido ctrs on different part of body
Personality results from the manner in which conflicts at each stage are resolved
Theories of Personality Dev
Freud-Oral
Oral-Birth-1yr
Mouth focus of sensation and Stimulation
Weaning is primary conflict
Fixation results in dependence, passivity,orally-focused habits
Theories of Personality Dev
Freud-Anal
Anal 1-3 yrs
Control of bodily wastes
Toilet training is primary conflict
fixation results in stingness, selfishness, o-c behavior or cruelty, destructiveness, messiness
Theories of Personality Dev-Freud
Phallic Stage 3-6 yrs
Resolution of Oedipal conflict desire for opposite sex parent
Success leads to identification w/ same sex parent-Development of Superego
fixation results in sexual exploitation of others
Theories of Personality Dev-Freud
Latency Stage 6-12 yrs
Sexual energy is diffuse and not centered
Emphasis on Social Skill Dev
Theories of Personality Dev-Freud
Genital Stage 12+ yrs
Sexual energy is blended w/ affections to produce mature sexual relationshipos
Theories of Personality Dev-Erickson Psychosocial Dev
Stresses role of Social Factors and psychosocial crises rather than sexual factors
Greater emphasis on ego than id
Behavior is due to ego functioning
Theories of Personality Dev-Erickson Psychosocial Dev
Basic Trust vs Mistrust-Sense of Trust and optimism
Theories of Personality Dev-Erickson
Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
Sense of self via positive interactions.
Theories of Personality Dev-Erickson
Initiative Vs Guilt ability to set goals and carry out plans w/o infringing on rts of others
Theories of Personality Dev-Erickson
Industry vs Inferiority-mastering social and academic skills
Theories of Personality Dev-Erickson
Identity vs Roleconfusion-sense of personal id and direction for future
Theories of Personality Dev-Erickson
Intimacy vs Isolation-establish bonds of love, relationships,avoid isolation
Theories of Personality Dev-Erickson
Generativity vs Stagnation committment to next generation.
Theories of Personality Dev-Erickson
Integrity vs Despair-Wisdom and sense of integrity, come to grips with one's mortality
Live Span Dev-Levinson
Sessions of a Man's Life
Early Adulthood 17-22 leave childhood, independence from parents-the dream of idealized life
Live Span Dev-Levinson
Age 30 transition-moving into full adult world.
Live Span Dev-Levinson
Mid life Transition 40-45 stress/reorganization-goals are not satisfying
Live Span Dev-Family Influences
Authoritarian-offspring irritable-aggressive-dependent-low self esteem
Live Span Dev-Family Influences
Authoritative-assertive-self confident-socially responsible and achievement orientated.
Live Span Dev-Family Influences
Permissive-impulsive-self centered-easily frustrated-low in acheivement-and independence.
Live Span Dev-Family Influences
Rejecting/neglecting-low self esteem-impulsive-moody and agressive
Live Span Dev-Family Influences
Temperament
Asians do well academicaly w/ authoritarian style
Latino and Asians do not do as well as Caucasian w/ authoritative parents
do not receive peer support for academic achievement
Live Span Dev-Family Influences-Birth Order
First Born-rapid lang acquisition achieve higher grades, higher IQscoresw,l socially responsible
Later born less cautious-better peer relationships-more socially confident
Family size and spacing affect results.
Live Span Dev-Id dev-Gender
Gender Roles-Age 3 id as boy or girl show preference for behaviors associated w/ gender
Sex-role stereotyping develop early and affect play-memory and attributions
Live Span Dev-Id Dev-Kohlberg
Cognitive Dev-Kohlberg
Gender Id-2-3 recognize male and female
Gender Stability-boys become men girls become women
Gender consistency-cannot change gender
Gender differences reappear in marriage and child raising
Genderrole reversal may occur in middle age
Life Span Dev-Half
Adolescent Id Crisis
Identity diffusion-not yet in crisis
Identity forclosure-adoptid imposed by others
id moratorium-id crisis and actively explores alternative identities
id acheivement-resolved crisis by evaluating alternatives and committing to and identity
only small portion of teens experience significant distress
rates of pathology 10-20%
more vulnerable todepresion, suicide, delinguency, drug use anorexia, bulmia
Life span dev-Gilligan
11-12 girls faced w/ cultural sterotypes
experience loss of voice-drop academic achievement-loss of self-esteem
Live Span Dev-Adult
OCEAN
Openness
Conscientiousness
Extraversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism.
Life Span-Death/Dying
3-4 Death reversable
5-9 death is universal and irreversable
10-death is biological process
Kubler-Ross DABDA
Denial-Anger-Bargaining-Depression-Acceptance.
Social/Moral Dev-Attachment
Emotion bond between infant and primary care giver
Psychoanalytic-oral gratification
Learning-reinforcement
Harlow's monkeys-contact confort
Ethological-Biological tendency to form attachments
imprinting-critical period
Bowlby-6-7 mos infants attachment behaviors towards caregiver.
Signs of Attachment
Social Referencing-6 mos -look to caregiver for direction
Separation anxiety 6-9 mos peaks 14-16 mos
Stranger Anxiety-8-10 mos-2yrs
Patterns of Attachment-Ainsworth
Secure -Mildly upset, actively seek mother when returns-mothers emotionally attached and responsive
Patterns of Attachment-Ainsworth
Insecure/amblivanent-disturbed amblivanent when mom returns-anger-mother moody, inconsistent
Patterns of Attachment-Ainsworth
Insecure/Avoident very disturbed, avoids/ignores when mother returns-mother impatient and inconsistent
Patterns of Attachment-Ainsworth
Disorganized/disorientedd-fear mother, draw close then retreat, confused facial expressions-mistreated
Patterns of Attachment-Ainsworth
less dependent-more popular, hig self esteem, strong sense of self-insecure attachement doens not always result in poor social adjustment
Attachment to fathers
similiar attachements to both parents
quality of interactions more important rather then amt of time
play activities rather than nurturance
Prolonged separation
prior to 3 mos- little or no neg consequences
9 mos or more-moderate to extreme reactins-sleeping/feeding problems social withdrawal
Anaclitic depression-dev delayus, unresponsiveness-withdrawal
Bowlbys stages of separation
Protest-refusal to acept
Despair-gives up hope
detachment-begins to accept attention from others, seem less happy
Sibling relationships
Sibling rivalries most intense w/ same sex children who are 1.5-3 yrs. apartinsonsistentparential discipline
Middle childhood-closeness conflict-cooperation-competitition
Adolescence-reduced conflict-view each other as equals
late adulthood=variability-accentuation of childhood bond in both directions good/bad
Peer Relationships
Friendships centered on smiliarities
4-7 playmates
8-10 trust and assistance important
11- intimacy and loyality
Females -drawn to emotional and intimate aspects of friendships
Males focus on shared interests
Adults-quality
BUFFERING Hypothesis-subjective perception of soscial support
Peer Relattionships-Children
Popular childrenhave positive self-concept, more attractive, intelligent, creative, and friendly
Rejected children -aggressive, withdrawn,immature,socially incompetent, poor self-esteem
Peer pressure
stronger for prosocialbehavior
14-15 conformity peeks
Older adolscents-smoking, drinking-and sex most pressurized subjects
Parents influence basic beliefs and values, educational and career goals
Play
Solitary-often educational
Social-parallel, associative-cooperative Age 2
Aggression
Family factors-attachment insecurity, marital conflict, coerive interactions poor parential role monitoring
social-cognitive factors- self-efficacy beliefs, interpreting positive/ambiguous behavior as hostile.
Aggression-Gender
Differences breatest in preschool and gradually decline
Females show more relational aggression
Bulling- Victims more anxioujs, insecure, socilly isolated low self confidence
Reducing aggression
Modeling and reinforcing alternative prosocila behavior
Cognitive training-aggression hurts others,causes unhappiness, doesn't solve problems
Empathy-motivates moral behavior
Moral Dev-Piaget
Premoral stage<6 little concern for rules
Heteronomous 7-10 rules set by authority and are unalterable
Autonomous morality-11+ rules are abritrary and alterable when people agree to change them
Lying
Young children-spontaneous liars-see it as natural and harmless
7-8 iintentionally communicate misstatements
10-11 recognize they can be deceived by others.
Moral Dev- Kohleberg
Preconventional-
Punishment/Obedience Moralityh based on consequences of behavior-focus on behavior that allows themto avoid punishment
Instrumental Hedonism-consequences will guide moral judgements-focus on obtaining rewards and satisfying personal needs than avoiding punishment
Moral Dev-Kohleberg
Conventionaal
Good Boy/Good Girl-Right actions are those that are liked or approved byh others
Law and Order-based on rules and laws established bylegitimate authorities
Moral Dev Kohleberg
Postcoventional Morality
Morality of Contract-Individual rights, and democratically Accepted Laws
Consistent w/ democratically determined laws can be changed if interfere w/ basic rights
Morality of Individual Principles of Consscience
Determined on basis of broad, self-choosen, universally-applicable ethical principles
Moral Dev-kohleberg
Advancement through staged depends on:
Level of Reasoning
Individuals Motivation
Opportunities totake the perspective of others
Exposure to institutions that foster equality and reciprocity.
Moral-Dev
Social Perceptive taking
Preconventional-concrete individual perspective
Conventional member of society
Postconventional =prior to society

Encourage moral dev through "Just Community"
Moral Dev-Gilligan
Kohlberg's theory not applicable to women
Level 1 Orientation to Individual survival-focus on what is best for ones-self
Level 2 Goodness as Self-Sacrifice-sacrifice one's own desires for those of others-
Transition 2 from goodness to truth-focus is coordingting responsibilites of self and others
Level 3 Morality of Nonviolence=avoiding harm to self and others.
Moral Dev-Family Factors
Divorce-Factors
Communicationproblems, lack of fulfillment, incompatibility effects on parents and parenting
Diminished capacity to parent due to emotional distress and changes in functioning
Mom-monitors behavior less closely, less consisitent, more, more authoritarian, uncommunicative and impatient.
Fathers-similar problems, may adjust quicker
Noncustodial fathers-overly permissive and indulgent-visits decline after first few months
Moral Dev-Family Factors
Effects on Children
1st yer most profound after divorce
Increased aggressiveness, noncompliance and acting out; relationship disruption, academicdifficulties
Consequences related to age
Preschoolers most effected initially
Long term consequences wors for older children 8-9
Gender Mixed results evenouts by adolescence
Sleeper effect Girls may not show negative effects initially
Custody arrangement-living with same sex parent may help transition
Best when children have regular contact with noncustodial parent
Same as children whose parents have unhappy,conflicutal marriage.
family Factors-Stepfamilies
75% remarry after 3-5 yrs
recovery period longer for older children/adolescents
girls have trouble w/ stepfathers boy benefit
Step parents less involved
Conflict greatest w/ stepfather involved w/ parenting
Stepmothers more involved overall.
Family Factors Maternal Employment
60% of women w/ pre-school children are employed
50% under age 1 are employed
Children have egualitarina gender-role concepts
daughters have higher self-esteem
boys negative outcomes-<supervision
Women > responsible for childcare and household chores.
Family Factors
Daycare-quality not detrimental may have benefits for cognitive and Social dev.
Gay and Lesbian Prarents
parental relationship > important thant sexual orientationg
parenting skills and psychological adjustment are similar to heterosexual parents
Child Abuse
delays in cognitive dev. reduced school performance
less friend > relationship problems
Aggresisive and other behavior problems.
Abusive parents are victims of abuse and are ignorant of normal child development
Children of abuse are premature, low birthweight, difficult temperament, poor health higher risk if < 3.
Self-fulfilling Prophesy Effect
Rosenthal/jacobsen
teachers respond differently to gender
Boys-corrected, criticized-praised-helped
Head start
initial academic gains lost
better attitude about school
Cooperative Learning
improves performance /self-esteem-enhances cross-racial relationships
Tracking
Beneficial for high-performing students
Mainstreaming
helpls low achieving students
Computers
Allows children to work at own pace
improves achievement tests
and attitudes toward subjects
beneficial for low-functioning and special need children
Males >engaged
TV
1/3 waking time in front of TV
increases aggeression and toleranace for aggression
Read less, poorer school performance
age 7 realized TV characters are actors
8 realized commericals are to influence buying.