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21 Cards in this Set

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Senescence
The process of aging, whereby the body becomes less strong and efficient.
Presbycusis
The loss of hearing associated with senescence. This often does not become apparent until after age 60.
Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)
A general term for the techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive and then sustain a pregnancy.
In Vitro Fertilization
Fertilization that takes place outside a woman's body (as in a glass laboratory dish). Sperm are mixed with ova that have been surgically removed from the woman's ovary. If the combination produces a zygote, it is inserted into the woman's uterus, where it may implant and develop into a baby.
Menopause
The time in middle age, usually around age 50, when a woman's menstrual periods cease completely and the production of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone drops considerably. Strictly speaking, this is dates one year after a woman's last menstrual period.
Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
Treatment to compensate for hormone reduction at menopause or following surgical removal of the ovaries. Such treatment, which usually involves estrogen and progesterone, minimizes menopausal symptoms and diminishes the risk of osteoporosis in later life.
Andropause
A term coined to signify a drop in testosterone levels in older men, which normally results in reduced sexual desire, erections, and muscle mass. Also known as male menopause.
Mortality
Death. As a measure of health, this usually refers to the number of deaths each year per 1,000 members of a given population.
Morbidity
Disease. As a measure of health, this refers to the rate of diseases of all kinds in a given population - physical and emotional, acute (sudden) and chronic (ongoing).
Disability
Long term difficulty in performing normal activities of daily life because of some physical, mental or emotional condition.
Vitality
A measure of health that refers to how healthy and energetic - physically, intellectually, and socially - an individual actually feels.
QALYs (quality-adjusted life years)
A way of comparing mere survival without vitality to survival with good health. This indicates how many years of full vitality are lost to a particular physical disease or disability. They are expressed in terms of life expectancy as adjusted for quality of life.
DALYs (disability-adjusted life years)
A measure of the impact that a disability has on quality of life. These are the reciprocal of quality-adjusted life years. A reduction in QALYs means an increase in DALYs
Identify physical changes of primary and secondary aging that occur in middle adulthood and the impact of those changes.
1) Increased blood pressure & higher levels of LDL cholesterol result in heart disease
2) Collagen, the connective tissue of the body decreases resulting in wrinkles
3) Hair turns gray and gets thinner, skin becomes drier, stomach muscles weaken, pocket of fat settle on parts of the body
4) back muscles, connective tissue and bones lose strength resulting in people getting shorter, walk differently, sit and stand differently
5) Breathing gets quicker and shallower with age as lung efficiency deduces
6) Difficulty seeing objects at a distance increases first, followed by difficulty seeing objects that are close due to the lens of the eye becoming less elastic and the cornea flattening
7) All senses become less sharp with age because the sense organs loose function
Identify changes of primary and secondary aging that occur in middle adulthood to the Brain, and the impact of those changes.
1) neurons fire more slowly
2) messages sent from the axon of one neuron are not picked up as quickly by the dendrite of another neuron
3) the total size of the brain is reduced, gray matter in particular declines so there are fewer neurons and synapses
4) circadian rhythms are disrupted
Results:
1) reaction time is slower
2) complex memory tasks become impossible
3) multi tasking is more difficult
4) disrupted sleep is common, and sleep-walking
Identify changes of primary and secondary aging that occur in middle adulthood to the Sexual-Reproductive System, and the impact of those changes.
Most reductions in fertility are a result of lifestyle or stress. Age related changes include
1) reduced sperm count due to slower homeostasis that impedes recovery from events and decreased hormone levels.
2) sexual desire decreases for both sexes because sex hormones decrease
3) ovulation stops due to a marked decrease in sex hormones, lubrication during sexual arousal is reduced, body temperatures are disturbed, irritability may happen due to changing hormones or tiredness from interrupted sleep because of hot flashes, depression may occur over the change
4) men have reduced sexual desire, erections, and muscle mass due to the lower testosterone levels
Describe 4 measures of health
1) Mortality - # of deaths each yr per 1,000 individuals in a population
2) Morbidity - rate of diseases of all kinds in a given population
3) Disability - long-term difficulty in performing normal activities of daily life
4) Vitality - how healthy and energetic an individual actually feels
Name 3 habits that affect every aspect of aging.
1) Drug use
2) Exercise
3) Eating
To live an active and vital life, what health habits are crucial to your physical well being?
1) avoid alcohol & drugs
2) avoid smoking
3) exercise regularly
4) do not overeat, eat healty
5) preventative medical check-ups
What population variances affect the rate at which one ages?
1) Gender
2) Genes
3) Ethnicity
4) Income
5) Education
6) Location
7) Lifestyle
8) Culture
How are variations in health related to ethnicity and what are the reasons for these variations?
1) Socioeconomic status is a protective factor. Rich nations have lower rates of almost every disease, injury, and cause of death than poorer nations
2) income affects many health decisions from poor choices (smoking) to health care decisions