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26 Cards in this Set

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Adolescent Egocentrism
A characterisitc of adolescent thinking that leads young people (ages 10-13) to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others. A young person might believe, for example, that his or her thoughts, feelings, and experiences are unique, more wonderful or awful than anyone else's.
Invincibility Fable
An adolescent's egocentric conviction that he or she cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal, such as unprotected sex, drug abuse, or high-speed driving.
Imaginary Audience
The other people who, in an adolescent's egocentric belief, are watching, and taking note of, his or her appearance, ideas, and behavior. This belief makes many teenagers very self-conscious.
Formal Operational Thought
In Piaget's theory, the fourth and final stage of cognitive development, characterized by more systematic logic and the ability to think about abstract ideas.
Hypothetical Thought
Reasoning that includes propostitions and possibilities that may not reflect reality.
Deductive Reasoning
Reasoning from a general statement, premise, or principle, through logical steps, to figure out (deduce) specifics. Sometimes called top-down thinking.
Inductive Reasoning
Reasoning from one or more specific experiences or facts to a general conclusion; may be less cognitively advances that deductions. Sometimes called bottom-up reasoning.
Dual-process Model
The notion that two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional and one for analytical processing of stimuli.
Intuitive Thought
Thought that arises from an emotion or a hunch, beyond rational explanation. Past experiences, cultural assumptions, and sudden impulses are the precursors of this thought. Also called contextualized or experiential thought.
Analytic Thought
Thought that results from analysis, such as a systematic ranking of pros and cons, risks and consequences, possibilities and facts. It depends on logic and rationality.
Sunk Cost Fallacy
The belief that if time or money has already been invested in something, then more time or money should be invested. Because of this fallacy, people spend money trying to fix a "lemon" of a car or sending more troops to win a loosing war. Ample amounts of these expenditures have already been made. It is an error made by people of all ages.
Secondary Education
Literally the period after primary education and before tertiary education. It usually occurs from about age 12 to 18, althought there is some variation by school and by nation.
Middle School
A school for grades between elementary and high school. It can be begin with grade 5 or 6 and usually ends with grade 8.
High-stakes Test
An evaluation that is critical in determining success or failure i.e. if a single test determines whether a student will graduate or be promoted.
What three forms of cognition appear during adolescence?
1) Egocentrism (early)
2) Intuition (middle)
3) Logic (end)
How does adolescents egocentrism differ from pre-operational thought in younger children?
Adolescents have a well-developed theory of mind whereas younger children do not. Adolescents egocentrism does not ignore others but distorts their understanding of what others might be thinking, especially about them.
What are two aspects of adolescent egocentrism?
1) The Invincibility Fable
2) Imaginary Audience
At what stage of thought are adolescents at according to Piaget?
Formal Operational Thought
To test formal operational thought and the use of logic, Piaget designed a test using a scale and weights and asked children to balance them. How does a 14 year balance them vs. a 10 year old?
A 14 year old uses logic to determine the weight and distance needed to balance whereas 10 year old children use trial and error.
What are some aspects of formal operational thought?
1) Logic Thinking
2) Abstract Thinking
Which mode of thinking do teens often use in decision making?
Intuitive, emotional thought instead of hypothetical-deductive reasoning which is more difficult to use (egocentrism also may play a role).
What are some reasons why middle school often slows down academic achievement and behavioral problems become more common?
1) Students loose connection to teachers (teachers often have hundreds of students, classes are rotated)
2) Students relationships with each other deteriorate as school sizes often increase
3) Aggressive and drug using students tend to be admired at this age over conscientious and studious students
4) Popularity becomes increasingly important, stop associating with unpopular peers (do not cross groups, learn from others that may be more studious)
5) Family conflicts increase
What is one common practice used by the educational system that is harmful to adolescents?
Changing schools from elementary to middle school
What is the US percentage of status dropouts?
10%
As students reach high school, what are the most common behavioral problems in class?
Doing nothing or coming late - lack of engagement
What can be done to engage students in school learning?
1) Allow the use of egocentric and intuitive thought instead of just using formal operational thought
2) Allow social interaction between students
3) Train and hire teachers to relate to adolescents.
4) Decrease school size to allow students to become actively involved (teams, clubs)