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67 Cards in this Set

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The period of middle childhood is characterized by what kind of growth?
slow consistent growth
What are some physical changes in midddle childhood?
an average of 2-3 inches a year, muscle mass and strength gradually increase, decreases in head circumference and leg length in relation to body height
How is motor development during middle childhood?
smoother and more coordinated, greater control over bodies, sit and attend longer, lives should be activity oriented
What is reflected by the increased myelination of the CNS?
improved motor skills
How are improved fine motor skills reflected?
handwriting development
How do boys and girls differ as to motor skills?
boys are better at gross motor skills, girls are better at fine
Children's participation in sports have what consequences?
positive-(exercise and self-esteem) or negative-(pressure to win and physical injuries)
Middle and late childhood is usually a period marked by good health, what is the leading cause of death?
motor vehicle accidents, cancer is second (leukemia most common)
The increase in obesity in children is linked to what?
poor diet, inadequate exercise, and pooreating habits
What percent of children with a learning disability receive special education? How many are classified as having a learning disability?
10 percent; 50 percent
What three components does a learning disability have?
1. a minimum IQ level 2. a significant difficulty in a school-related area 3. exclusion of only severe emotional disorders, etc
What is dyslexia?
severe impairment in the ability to read and spell
ADHD is a disability in which individuals consistently show problems in what areas?
1. innatention 2. hyperactivity 3. impulsivity
What did the 1975 Public Education for All Handicapped Children Act mandate?
that all children be given a free, appropriate public education
What is the concept of the least restrictive environmemt?
that children with disabilities must be educated in a setting that is a as similar as possible to regular ones
What is inclusion?
educating children with disabilites full time in the regular classroom
What did Piaget state was the stage of concrete operational thought?
7-11 years
What does the stage of concrete operational thought involve?
operations, conservation, classification, seriation and transivity
What do critics say about Piaget?
They question his estimates of competence at different developmental levels, his stages concept, etc
What do Neo-Piagetians argue?
that Piaget got some things right but theory needs revision
On what do Neo-Piagetians place emphasis?
on how children process information, strategies, speed of information processing, and the division of cognitive problems into more precise steps
What mental ability increases in middle and late childhood? And what influences this?
long term memory, knowledge and expertise
What strategies influence memory?
imagery and elaboration, the fuzzy trace theory
What does critical thinking involve?
thinking reflectively and productively, as well as evaluating evidence, thinking in novel and unusual ways to come up with unique answers
What did Guileford distinguish between?
convergent and divergent thinking
What strategy can be used to encourage creative thinking?
brainstorming
What is metacognition?
cognition about cognition or knowing about knowing
What did Pressley view as the key to education?
that students learn a rich repertoire of strategies
What does intelligence involve?
problem-solving skills and the ability to adapt and learn from everyday experiences
What developed the first intelligence test?
Binet and Simon; concept of mental age
What formula did Stern create?
The concept of IQ as the mental age divided by the chronological age times 100
What are the Weschler scales used for?
used widely to assess intelligence and yield an overall IQ, as well as verbal and performance IQ's
What did Spearman propose?
that people have a general intelligence(g)and specific types(s), three main forms: analytical, creative, and practical
What did Gardner propose?
That there are 8 types of intelligence: verbal, math, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills, musical skills and naturalist
What issues are there in intelligence?
heredity, environment, ethnicity, culture, and use and misuse of intelligence tests
What do some studies on the heritability of intelligence show?
adopted children have IQ's similar to biological parents, identical twins show stronger correlations than fraternal
What is the Flynn effect?
that intelligence test scores have risen in recent decades-pointing to the role of environment
What did Ramsey's research reveal?
the positive effects of educational child care on intelligence
Who did early intelligence tests favor?
White, middle-socioeconomic-status individuals over urban individuals
What are three characteristics of gifted children?
precocity, individuality, and a passion to master
Children become more analytical and logical in their approach to what during middle childhood?
words and grammar, and they better understand comparatives and subjectives; can use complex grammar and produce meaningful narratives
What is the basic-skills-and-phonics approach?
advocates phonetics instruction and giving children simplified materials
What is the whole-language approach?
stresses that reading instruction should parrallel children's natural language learning;giving whole-language materials such as books and poems
Is success in learning a second language greater in childhood or adolescence?
childhood
What is seriation?
the concrete operation that involves ordering stimuli along a quantitative dimension (such as length)
What is transitivity?
the ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions
When is the average school-age girl taller than the boys?
elementary school years until about the age of 11
What is wasting?
impoverished weight gain,
What is stunting?
impoverished height gain, 2 standards below av
When a child is obese at 6 years of age-what are the chances of becoming an obese adult?
25%
When a child is obese at 12 years of age-what are the chances of becoming an obese adult?
75%
What characterizes autism?
they have some receptive language and little expressive language
Those with a leraning disability cannot do what?
link sensory abilities to parts of the brain
What percent of kids in special programs have a learning disability?
10%
What are some characteristics of Williams's Syndrome?
have strong and good musical inclination although their disabilites are profound
What is dysgraphia?
difficulty in writing and spacing words out on the page
What is ayslexia?
cannot read at all
What is dsylexia?
difficulties in reading
What is dysnomia?
word recall difficulty
What is dyscalculia?
math difficulty
What is dyspraxia?
difficulty with motor movements-especially speech
What are strategies?
cognitve processes that do not occur automatically but require work and effort, can be used to improve memory
What is elaboration?
a strategy that invloves engaging in more extensive processing of information
What is the fuzzy trace theory?
memory is best inderstood by considering 2 types of memory rep. 1. verbatim memory trace 2. gist older children's extracting the gist of the information
What is convergent thinking?
thinking that produces one correct answer (standardized tests)
What is divergent thinking?
thinking that produces many answers to the same question (creativity)
How many points of a discrepancy between IQ and reading levels necessitate intervention?
16