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30 Cards in this Set

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development
the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life span. Involves growth, although it also includes decline brought on by aging and dying
origional sin
the view that children were basically bad and born into the world as evil beings
tabula rara
the idea, proposed by Jonn Locke, that children are like a "blank slate"
innate googness
the idea, presented by Swiss-born philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, that children are inherently good
life span perspective
the perspective that development is life long, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual, and involves growth, maintenance, and regulation
context
the setting in which development occurs, which is influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors
culture
the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation
cross-cultural studies
comparisons of one culture with one or more other cultures. These provide information about the degree to which development is similar, or universal, across cultures, and to the degree to which it is culture-specific
ethnicity
a characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristic, race, religion, and language
socioeconomic status (SES)
refers to the grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics
gender
the psychological and sociocultural dimensions of being female or male
social policy
a national government's course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens
generational inequity
a social policy concern in which an aging society is being unfair to its younger members
biological processes
changes in an individual's physical nature
cognitive processes
changes in an individual's thought, intelligence, and language
socioemotional processes
changes in an individual's relationships with other people, emotions, and personality
chronological age
the number number of years that have elapsed since birth
biological age
a person's age in terms of biological health
psychological age
an individual's adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age
social age
social roles and expectations related to a person's age
nature-nurture issue
debate whether development is primarily influenced by nature or nurture
continuity-discontinuity issue
focuses on the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity)
stability-change issue
involves the degree to which we become older renditions of our early experience (stability) or whether we develop into someone different from who we were at an earlier point in development (change)
John Locke
english philosopher - "blank slate" - end of 17th century
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Swiss-born French philosopher - innate goodness - in the 18th century
Paul Baltes
developed the life-span perspective
Jeanne Brooks-Gunn
concluded that poverty in the first few years of life is a better predictor of school completion and achievement at 18 than povert in the adolescent years
Marian Wright Edelman
president of the Childrens's Defense Fund, advocater, "indicators of social neglect places US near the lowest ranking industrialized nations in the treatment of children
Bernice Neugarten
says problem is a shortcomming of our economic and social policies. We should support all people in our society
Jerome Kagan
showed that children are able to change their behavior - related to stability and change