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71 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the continuity–discontinuity issue?
Focuses on the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity).
What is the nature–nurture issue?
Refers to the debate about whether development is primarily influenced by what we are born with or what we experience from our environment as we grow.
What does the tabula rasa view
The idea, proposed by John Locke, that children are like "blank tablets" on which their characteristics are drawn as they mature.
What does the innate goodness view discuss?
The idea, presented by Swiss-born philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, that children are inherently good.
What are cross-cultural studies?
Comparisons of one culture with one or more other cultures
Define context
The setting in which development occurs. Development is influenced by historical, economic, social, and cultural factors
What is the life-span perspective?
The perspective that development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual, and involves growth, maintenance, and regulation.
What are cognitive processes?
Changes in an individual's thought, intelligence, and language.
Define culture
The behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation.
Define ethnicity
characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language.
Define socioeconomic status (SES)
The grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics.
What is gender?
psychological and sociocultural dimensions of being female or male.
What is the original sin view?
Advocated during the Middle Ages, the belief that children were basically bad and born into the world as evil beings.
What is development?
The pattern of change that begins at conception and continues throughout the life span. Most development involves growth, although it also includes decline brought on by aging and dying.
What is the traditional approach to development?
extensive change from birth to adolescence, little or no change in adulthood and decline in old age
What is the life-span approach to development?
developmental change throughout adulthood as well as childhood
Define plasticity
the capacity for change
What is the contextual view?
regards individuals as changing beings in a changing world
What are normative age-graded influences?
biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group
What are normative history-graded influences?
influences common to people of a particular generation because of the historical circumstances they experience
What are nonnormative life events?
unusual occurences that have a major impact on the individual's life and are usually not applicable to many people
What are Baltes three goals of human development?
growth, maintenance and regulation
Define social policy
a national government's course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens
What is generational inequity?
a social policy concern in which an aging society is being unfair to its younger members
Development is the product of which three processes?
Biological, cognitive and socioemotional
What are biological processes?
changes in an individual's physical nature
What are cognitive processes?
changes in a individual's thought, intelligence, and language
What are socioemotional processes?
changes in an individual's relationships with other people, emotions and personality
What are the 8 periods of development (most widely used)?
1.prenatal period2.infancy 3.early childhood4.middle and late childhood5.adolescence 6.early adulthood 7.middle adulthood 8.late adulthood
How is development lifelong?
early adulthood is not the endpoint of development; no age period dominates development
How is development multidimensional?
it consists of biological, cognitive and socioemotional dimensions
How is lifespan multidirectional?
throughout life some dimensions or components of a dimension expand and others shrink. i.e. the capacity to learn a second language diminishes as one grows older, older ones are wiser but slower to process information
How is development plastic?
plasticity means the capacity for change
How is development multidisciplinary?
Psychologists, sociologists,anthropologists, neuroscientists, and medical researchers all study human development
How is development contextual?
the individual continually responds to and acts on contexts, which include biological makeup,physical environment,cognitve processes,historical, social and cultural contexts
What is biological age?
a person's age in terms of biological health
What is chronological age?
the number of years that have elapsed since birth
What is psychological age?
an individual's adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age
What is social age?
refers to social roles and expectations related to a person's age
What is the stability-change issue?
involves the degree to which we become older renditions of our early experience(stability) or whether we become something different(change)
What are some contibutions of psychoanalytic theories?
Early experiences important,family relationships,personality better understood developmentally,mind not all conscious,changes throughout life
What are some criticisms of psychoanalytic theories?
concepts difficult to test;much comes from reconstruction of past, sexual underpinnings;image too negative,culture and gender biased
What did Piaget's theory state?
that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through 4 stages of cognitive development
Explain the difference between assimilation and accomodation.
Piaget. assimilation occurs when we incorporate new information into our existing knowledge. accomodation is when we adjust to new info
What was Vygotsky's Sociocultural Cognitve Theory?
believed children actively construct knowledge;gave social interaction and culture more roles in cog. dev.
What are some contributions of the cognitve theories?
present positive view of dev.;empasize ind. active contruction of understanding;importance of evaluating children
What are some criticisms of the cognitive theories?
skepticism about pureness of Piaget's stages;not enough attention to individual variations;information theory does not describe dev. changes in cognition,not enough credit to unconcious thought
What was Pavlov's theory of classical conditioning?
a neutral stimulus(ringing a bell) acquires the ability to produce a response originally produced by another stimulus(meat,food)
What was Skinner's Operant Conditioning?
the consequences of a behavior produce change in the probability of the behavior's occurence;reward/punishment
What was Bandura's Social Cognitve theory?
the view of emphasizing behavior, environment and cognition as key factors in development
What are some contributions of the Behavioral and Social Cognitive theories?
importance of scientific research;environmental determinants of behavior;observational learning(Bandura);person/cognitve factors
What are some criticisms of the Behavioral and Social Cognitive theories?
too little emphasis on cognition(Pavlov,Skinner);too much emphasis on environment;inadequate attn. to dev. changes;too mechanical
What is the Ethological theory?
stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods
What is imprinting?
rapid, innate learning that involves attachment to the first moving object seen(lorenz)
Who developed the theory of attachment?
John Bowlby (1969,1989)
What are some contributions of the ethological theory?
increased focus on biological and evolutionary dev.;use of careful observations;emphasis on critical periods of development
What are some criticisms of the ethological theory?
concepts too rigid about critical and sensitive periods;inadequate attn. to cognition;better with animal research than humans
What is the Ecological theory?
Bronfenbrenner's environment system of development that focused on 5 systems:microsystem,mesosystem,exosystem,macrosystem,chronosystem
What is the microsystem?
The setting in which the individual lives;family;peers;school and neighborhood
What is the mesosystem?
relationships between microsysytems or connections between contexts; family-school;church-family
What is the exosystem?
when experiences in another social setting influence what the person experiences in the immediate context
What is the macrosystem?
The culture in which individuals live
What is the chronosystem?
The patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course
What are the contributions of the Ecological theory?
systematic exam. of micro and macro environmental systems;attn to connections between setting(meso)attn to sociohistorical influences(chrono)
What is eclectic theoretical orientation?
does not follow any one approach-selects from each theory whatever is considered the best in it
What is desciptive research?
observing and recording behavior
What is a standardized test?
a test with uniform procedures for administration and scoring
What are the criticisms of the Ecological theory?
too little attn. to biological foundations of dev.;inadequate attn. to cognitive processes
What is the sequential approach?
combined cross-sectional and longitudinal
What are cohort effects?
due to a person's time of birth, era or generation (similar experiences)
What is debriefing?
after the study-informing participants of purpose and methods used