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122 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is myelination?
The process by which nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells-sarts after birth not complete unt. adolescence
How many neural connections does the 3 year old have?
1,000 trillion-twice as many as adults
What is the rate of growth during early childhood?
The average child grows 2.5 inches and gains beween 5-7 pounds a year
What is growth hormone deficiency?
The absence or deficiency of growth hormone produced by the pituitary gland;without it most children will not reach 5 ft
What is the critical window for emotional control?
Between birth and 2 years old
What is the critical window for vision?
What is the critical window for social attachment, Erik Erikson's trust vs. mistrust stage?
What is the critical window for vocabulary?
What is the critical window for learning a second language?
What is the critical window for math and logic?
What is the critical window for music and what is it tied to?
3-10, associated with math and logic
When is the frontal lobe growing rapidly and what does it do?
3-6 years cognitive changes can be seen, planning, organizing, understanding
When does the most growth take place in the temporal and parietal lobes and what do they do?
Age 6-puberty, major roles in language and spatial relationships-parietal
When do neural connections start to slow and what happens by age 11?
age 6; by age 11 pruning gets rid of unused-brain is more powerful; we only use the connections related to our language
What did Gesell say about a child's ability to copy circles?
2 and under cannot
Good-enough Harris
children can be rated on their ability to draw a person-the more detail-the higher the perception and intelligence
What is house-tree-person test?
Says a lot about the child's socioemotional growth-how they see themselves and others
What are some gross motor skills for ages 3-4 (37-48 months)?
throws ball underh., pedals trike, catches large ball, forward somersault,jumps to floor from 12",3 hops,steps on foot. pattern
What are some gross motor skills for ages 4-5 (49-60 months)?
bounces and catches ball, runs 10ft and stops, pushes wagon, buggy, kicks ball,carries 12lbs, 1 ft 4 hops
What are some gross motor skills for ages 5-6 (61-72 months)?
throws ball-boys 44ft,girls 25, carries 16lbs, kicks rolling ball,roller skates,skips rope, rolls ball, rides bike with training wheels
What are some fine motor skills for ages 5-6 (61-72 months)?
folds paper .5's and .25's, draws circ, rect, square, triangle,cuts interior paper, uses crayons approp.,clay ob 2 parts, reproduces letters,cop. 2 words
What are some fine motor skills for ages 4-5 (49-60 months)?
strings & laces shoe, cuts following line, strings beads, copies x, opens & places clothespins, 5 block bridge, writes first name
What are some fine motor skills for ages 3-4 (37-48 months)?
draws approx. circle, cuts paper, pastes, three block bridge, eight block tower, draws 0, dresses and un dolls,pours from pitcher
Where do 95 percent of right-handed individuals process speech?
brain's left hemisphere
Where do left-handed individuals process speech?
.5 left hemisphere, .25 equally in both
What are some characteristics of left-handed people?
more reading problems, more common among mathmeticians, musicians, architects and artists, good visual-spatial skills and imagining layouts
What is BMR?
Base Metabolism Rate-the minimum amount of energy a person uses in a resting state
How many calories does the preschool child require in a day and what portion should be fat?
1,700 calories, 35 percent
What is the leading cause of death among young children?
What are children more likely to develop when exposed to tobacco smoke in the home?
wheezing symptoms and asthma and it also affects the amount of vitamin C in their blood
What is the difference between an acute and a chronic illness and what are some examples?
acute-3 months or less(cold, flu, virus(4-6 bouts a year)
chronic-long-lasting, diabetes, asthma
What is the tendency in single mother families?
more asthma, more headaches, more acute illnesses
What are operations?
In Piaget's theory, internalized sets of actions that allow children to do mentally what they used to do mentally, i.e. adding and subtracting
What changes take place in Piaget's preoperational stage?
2-7 years stable concepts are formed, mental reasoning emerges, egocentrism begins and weakens, magical thought
What does the word "preoperational" emphasize?
that the child at this stage cannot yet think something through without acting it out
What 2 substages can pre-operational thought be divided into?
symbolic function substage and intuitive thought
What is the symbolic function substage?
2-4 the child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present, language and pretend play
What is egocentrism?
The inability to distinguish between's one own perspective and someone else's-part of first substage
What is animisim?
the belief that inanimate objects have "lifelike" qualities and are capable of action (the sidewalk made me fall)
What is the second substage intuitive thought?
4-7 children begin to use primitive reasoning and want answers to all kinds of questions
What is centration?
focusing or centering attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others
What is conservation?
awareness that altering an object's or substance's appearance does not change its quantitive properties
Why is the second substage called intuitive?
children seem so sure of knowledge-but are unaware of how they know what they know
What is the pre-conservational child?
not logical, difficulty in generalizing and believing, phenomenalistic thinking-2 unrelated things together
What is the zone of proximal development?
Vgotsky's term for tasks too difficult for children to master alone but that can be mastered with assistance
What did Vgotsky call "buds" or "flowers" of development?
child's cognitive skills that are in the process of maturing and can be mastered only with the assistance of a more skilled person
What did Vgotsky call "fruits" of development?
tasks that the child can already accomplish independently
What is the role of scaffolding in cognitive development?
changing the level of support, tapering off gradually as the child's competence increases
According to Vgotsky-children use speech for what?
not only for social communication-but to help them solve tasks, plan, guide and monitor behavior
What is the use of language for self-regulation called?
private speech, ego-centric and immature
What did Vgotsky say about language and thought?
that they develop independently and then merge, mental functions have external, social origins-talking to self-long time before internal develops
What is inner speech?
when the self-talk becomes second nature and they can act without speaking out loud
What did Piaget say about self-talk?
that it was egocentric and a sign of immaturity
What is the social constructivist approach?
an approach that emphasizes the social contexts of learning and that knowledge is mutually built and constructed-Vgotsky
What is the difference between Piaget and Vgotsky regarding how knowledge is constructed?
P-by transforming,organizing , and re-organizing previous knowledge,V-through social interaction
What is the difference between Piaget and Vgotsky regarding their theories for teaching?
P-children need support to explore world, V-students need many opportunites to learn with teachers
What are the three ways a child's attention ability changes during the pre-school years?
control of attention (1 obj.), salient (dimensions that stand out) vs. relevant dimensions (needed to solve prob), playfulness (haphazard comparisons)
What is short-term memory?
the memory component in which individuals retain information for about 30 seconds without rehearsal
What is the theory of mind?
awareness of one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others
What is the child-centered kindergarten?
education that involves the whole child by considering both the child's physical, cognitive, and social development and the child's needs, interests and learning styles-play
What is the
Montessori approach?
children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities and are allowed to move from one to another
What is Developmentally Appropriate practice?
education that focus on the typical developmental patterns of children (age) and the uniqueness of each child (individual)-paper, pencil abstract
What is Project Head Start?
a government funded program designed to provide children from low income families the opportunity to acquire skills and experiences for school success
According to Erik Erikson-what psychosocial stage characterizes early childhood?
initiative versus guilt, they are persons of their own, intensely identify with parents, use perceptual, motor, cognitive, language skills to make things happen
What is the governor of initiative?
conscience, they begin to hear the inner voices of self-observation, self-guidance, and self-punishment
How do children leave this stage with a sense of initiative instead of guilt?
depends on how parents respond to self-initiated activities, giving freedom, answering questions and do not deride play activity
What is self-understanding?
the child's cognitive representation of self, the substance and content of the child's self-conceptions
Development is the joint product of which 2 things?
physical maturation and socio-cultural development
What 2 things are the key words for Vgotsky for development?
language and environment
How did Piaget say that changes occured in cognitive processes?
by allowing children to interact with their environment by themselves
How did Vgotsky say that changes occured in cognitive processes?
Children need parental involvement to interact with the environment
How did Vgotsky and Piaget differ on views of sociocentricism and egocentricism?
P-said that children were ego-centric first and become socio-centric&language and perception. V-sociocentric first-egocentric later
What is syllogism?
deductive resasoning-children do not use this kind of reasoning
What is transductive reasoning?
fact to fact reasoning, how children handle similarities and likenesses-use relationships to a larger class
How do children conceive "self" in early childhood?
in physical terms, such as size, shape, color;play; sometimes distinguish themselves from others by material attributes as well
What is magical thinking?
belief that our thoughts can make things happen;explains use of security objects that are given up once thinking becomes deductive
The ability to see beyond the dominant figure or reverse what is being seen is related to what?
reading readiness-children who can do this have higher reading skills
What changes occur in emotional development in early childhood?
2-3 increase terms used to describe emotions-begin to talk about their own and others emotions;4-5begin to understand can influence other's emotions
What are self-conscious emotions?
require that children be able to refer to themselves and be aware of themselves as distinct from others
Wut hat appears first-self-awareness or self-conscious emotions?
self-conscious emotions do not develop until self-awareness is in place, in the last half of the 2nd year
What is emotion-coaching?
these parents monitor their children's emotions, view negative ones as chances to teach and coach them in dealing with emotions
What is emotion-dismissing?
parents view their role as to deny, ignore, or change negative emotions
What is moral development?
development that involves feelings, thoughts, and actions regarding rules and conventions about what people should do with others
What was Piaget's view of moral reasoning?
4-7 1st heteronomous morality, 7-10 transition a bit of each, 10+-2nd autonomous morality
What is heteronomous morality?
1st stage Piaget;4-7; justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world-out of the control of people
What is autonomous morality?
2nd stage piaget; 10+; child becomes aware that rules and laws created by people, in judging an action one should consider actors intentions and the consequences
What does a heteronomous thinker do?
judges the rightness or goodness of behavior by considering the consequences of behavior not the intentions of the actor; 12-1
What is paramount for the moral autonomist?
the actor's intentions; accept change and recognize that rules are subject to change
What is immanent justice?
the concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately
What is Freud's theory of morality in children?
to reduce anxiety, avoid punishment, and maintain parental affection, children form a superego by indentifying w/ same sex par
What is the difference between sex and gender?
sex is the biological dimension of being male or female; gender refers to the social and psychological
What is gender identity?
the sense of being male or female, most children acquire by the time they are 3
What is gender role?
a set of expectations that prescribes how females or males should think, act and feel
What are the 2 main classes of sex hormones?
estrogens and androgens secreted by the gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males)
What do evolutionary psychologists argue regarding gender?
that because of their differing roles in reproduction, males and females faced dif. pressures
What do evolutionary psychologists say about natural selection in males?
favored males who adopted short-term mating strategies, males evolved dispositions that favor violence, competition and risk-taking
What do evolutionary psychologists say about natural selection in females?
favored females who devoted effort to parenting and chose mates who could give offspring protection and resources-ambitious men
What are some social influences on gender?
pink and blue in hospital, adults and peers reward behavior, children imitate
What are the 3 main social theories of gender?
social role theory, psychoanalytic role theory and the social cognitive role theory
What is the social role theory?
theory that gender differences result from the contrasting roles of men and women
What is the psychoanalytic theory of gender?
Freud's view that the pre-schooler is attracted to opposite-sex parent;5-6 renounces and identifies with same sex parent
What is the social cognitive theory of gender?
gender occurs through the observation and imitation of gender and through rewards and punishments
What is the cognitive developmental theory of gender?
that children's gender typing occurs after they have developed a concept of gender-then they organize their world on gender
What is the gender schema theory?
that an individual's attention and behavior are guided by an internal motivation to conform to stereotypes
What is gender constancy?
The understanding that sex remains the same even though activities, clothing, and hairstyle might change
What are the 4 different parenting styles?
Authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, and neglectful
How are authoritarian parents classified?
as rejecting, unresponsive, demanding and controlling, children lack independence, unhappy, fearful, anxious, weak communication
How are authoritative parents classified?
Accepting, responsive, demanding, controlling, self-reliant, knows consequences, achievement-oriented
How are neglectful parents classified?
rejecting, unresponsive, undemanding and uncontrolling; poor self-control, immature, low self esteem, truancy delinquency
How are indulgent parents classified?
Accepting, responsive, undemanding, uncontrolling; expect to get their way, do not respect others, domineering, ego-centric, peer
What are some characteristics of child maltreatment?
Physical abuse, child neglect(physical,educational,emotional), sexual abuse,emotional abuse
What is unoccupied play?
child is not engaging in play as it is commonly understood might stand or perform random movements
What is solitary play?
child plays alone and independently of others
What is onlooker play?
child watches others play
What is parallel play?
child plays separately but with toys like the others are using and mimic play
What is associative play?
social interaction play with little or no organization
What is cooperative play?
social interaction play in a group with a sense of group identity and organized activity
What is sensorimotor play?
behavior engaged in by infants to derive pleasure from exercising their existing sensorimotor schemas
What is practice play?
play involves repitition of behavior when new skills are being learned or when physical or mental mastery
What is pretense/symbolic play?
9-30mthe child transforms the physical environment into a symbol
What is social play?
play that involves interaction with peers
What is constructive play?
combines sensorimotor and repetitive activity with symbolic representation of ideas-occurs when children engage in self-regulated creation of a product or problem