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57 Cards in this Set

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All plants are ____________ celled.
multi
Most plants contain a green pigment called ______________
chlorophyll
___________ ___________ surrond plant cells nad give them structure.
cell walls
What holds plants to the ground so they don't move?
roots or root-like structures
Plants are ____________ that have ________ to life on land?
eukaryotes
adapted
About _______________ species of plants have been indentified.
285000
Fossils of _________ _________ represent the earliest plants known.
Rhynia Major
Rhynia Major had no ________ and thier __________ grew underground.
leaves
stems
Plant cells have rigid cell wall in addition to _________ ______________.
cell membranes
Cell walls are made of _________ and ______________.
cellulose and orgnaic compounds of long chains of sugar molecules.
Cell walls do not only Provide structure and support they keep the cell from __________________.
drying out
What is the waxy protective layer called?
cuticle
Simple plants require _________ to reporduce.
water
What are the advantages to plants living on land?
More sunlight for photosynthesis and more carbon dioxide
Plants are classified into ___________.
divisions
Divisons have the same level as a ____________ in the Protist Kingdom.
phylum
The most simple plants belong to the division __________. Some examples are?
Bryophyta
mosses and liverworts
Why do Bryophytes have only a few cells?
so it is easier for them to absorb water through thier cell walls
Plants with vessels are ___________ ______________.
Vascular plants
Plants without vessels are ______________ ______________.
nonvascular plants
Nonvascular plants do not have?
roots, stems, or leaves
Instead of growing from seeds Bryphyetes grow from?
spores
____________- is a simple rootless plant that has a flattened, leaf body.
Moss
How are mosses held in place?
by root-like filaments or fibers made up of a few long cells called rhzoids
A ___________ is a simple, rootless plant that has a flattened leaf-like body?
liverwort
How did liverworts get their name?
because people though they looked like livers
What did people in the ninth century think liverwort was useful for?
in the treatment of diseased of the liver thus the last word- wort
Structures that stick out of moss are called _______- __________________
moss sporophytes
Describe a Sporophyte?
include a stalk and a capsule in which numerous haploid spores are produced
What happens to the capsule?
it eventually breaks and the spores are scattered
A _____________ is the form of a moss plant that produces sex cells.
gametophyte
Sometimes a gametophyte poduces only ______ and ____ but it usually produces ________.
male
female
both
During a heavy dew of rain the __________ _________ gets splashed onto the _________ ____________.
male sperm
female gametophyte
The __________ divides by _______________ to form an embryo
zygote
mitosis
The embryo turns into a ______________ and the cycle begin again.
sporophyte
Describe alteration of generation?
alternating between the spore producing phase and sex-cell producing stage
All plants go through _________ and a __________ stage.
diploid
haploid
Mosses and liverworts are among the first plants to grow after?
fire
The first plants to grow in new areas are called?
pioneer plants
Pioneer plants grow and die and build up plant material needed for?
survival
The vascular tissues in seeles vascular plants are made of?
long tube like cells
Why can plants with vascular tissue get bigger?
because thier cells get thier water and nutrients through vascular tissue
Seedless vascular plants include?
spike mosses; horsetails, and ferns
ferns are very ___________ with at least _________ species.
abundant
120000
Club mosses produce spores at the end of the tems in structures that look like tiny?
pinecones
One type of club moss is _________________.
Lycopodium
Lycopdium is found in the?
Artic Tropics
An __________ is a plant that grows on another plant for support.
epiphyte
Horsetaisls atems are jointed and have a ____ center surrounded by a ring of ________ ___________.
hollow
vascualr tissue
What is silica?
a gritty substance found in sand when pioneers traveled across the us.
The largest group of seeless vascular plants is the divison _____________, the __________.
Pterophyta
ferns
Fern has leaves that grow above the ground from an undergound stem called the?
rhizome
Roots are gown from the rhyizome to?
anchor the plant to the ground
The leaf of a fern is called a?
frond
Why are young fronds sometimes called fiddle heads?
because thier curled shapte looks similar to the tops of violins or fiddles
What are sori?
strutures on the lower sides of the mature fronds
What do sotri's look like?
crusty rust brown or blackish bumps