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36 Cards in this Set

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Allele (a leel´) [Gr. allos: other]
alternate forms of a genetic character found at a given locus on a chromosome.
chromosome (in a eukaryote) other than a sex chromosome.
ondition in which two alleles at a locus produce different phenotypic effects and both effects appear in heterozygotes.
Dihybrid cross
ating in which the parents differ with respect to the alleles of two loci of interest.
genetics, the ability of one allelic form of a gene to determine the phenotype of a heterozygous individual, in which the homologous chromosomes carries both it and a different (recessive) allele. (Contrast with recessive.)
eraction between genes in which the presence of a particular allele of one gene determines whether another gene will be expressed.
degree to which a genotype is expressed in the phenotype
F1 (first filial generation)
immediate progeny of a parental (P) mating.
Gene [Gr. genes: to produce]
nit of heredity. Used here as the unit of genetic function which carries the information for a single polypeptide or RNA.
Genotype (jean´ oh type) [Gr. gen: to produce + typos: impression]
exact description of the genetic constitution of an individual, either with respect to a single trait or with respect to a larger set of traits. (Contrast with phenotype.)
Hemizygous (hem´ ee zie´ gus) [Gr. hemi: half + zygotos: joined]
a diploid organism, having only one allele for a given trait, typically the case for X-linked genes in male mammals and Z-linked genes in female birds. (Contrast with homozygous, heterozygous.)
e to be inherited
uation in which heterozygous genotypes are superior to homozygous genotypes with respect to growth, survival, or fertility. Also called hybrid vigor.
Heterozygous (het´ er oh zie´ gus) [Gr. heteros: different + zygotos: joined]
a diploid organism having different alleles of a given gene on the pair of homologues carrying that gene. (Contrast with homozygous.)
Homozygous (home´ oh zie´ gus) [Gr. homos: same + zygotos: joined]
a diploid organism, having identical alleles of a given gene on both homologous chromosomes. An individual may be a homozygote with respect to one gene and a heterozygote with respect to another. (Contrast with heterozygous.)
Incomplete dominance
dition in which the heterozygous phenotype is intermediate between the two homozygous phenotypes.
Independent assortment
ing meiosis, the random separation of genes carried on nonhomologous chromosomes. Articulated by Mendel as his second law.
genetics, a specific location on a chromosome. May be considered to be synonymous with gene.
Monohybrid cross
ating in which the parents differ with respect to the alleles of only one locus of interest.
etectable, heritable change in the genetic material not caused by recombination.
P generation
ental generation. The individuals that mate in a genetic cross. Their immediate offspring are the F1 generation.
pattern of transmission of a genetic trait within a family.
a genotype, the proportion of individuals with that genotype who show the expected phenotype.
Phenotype (fee´ no type) [Gr. phanein: to show]
observable properties of an individual resulting from both genetic and environmental factors. (Contrast with genotype.)
Pleiotropy (plee´ a tro pee) [Gr. pleion: more]
determination of more than one character by a single gene.
Polymorphism (pol´ lee mor´ fiz um) [Gr. poly: many + morphe: form, shape]
genetics, the coexistence in the same population of two distinct hereditary types based on different alleles.
genetics, an allele that does not determine phenotype in the presence of a dominant allele. Contrast with dominance.
Reciprocal crosses
air of crosses, in one of which a female of genotype A mates with a male of genotype B and in the other of which a female of genotype B mates with a male of genotype A.
individual, meiotic product, or single chromosome in which genetic materials originally present in two individuals end up in the same haploid complement of genes. The reshuffling of genes can be either by independent segregation, or by crossing over between homologous chromosomes.
F2 (second filial generation)
immediate progeny of a mating between members of the F1 generation.
genetics, the separation of alleles, or of homologous chromosomes, from one another during meiosis so that each of the haploid daughter nuclei produced by meiosis contains one or the other member of the pair found in the diploid mother cell, but never both. This principle was articulated by Mendel as his "first law."
Sex chromosome
organisms with a chromosomal mechanism of sex determination, one of the chromosomes involved in sex determination.
Sex linkage
pattern of inheritance characteristic of genes located on the sex chromosomes of organisms having a chromosomal mechanism for sex determination.
Test cross
ross of a dominant-phenotype individual (which may be either heterozygous or homozygous) with a homozygous-recessive individual.
form of a character: Eye color is a character
Wild type
eticists' term for standard or reference type. Deviants from this standard, even if the deviants are found in the wild, are said to be mutant.