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192 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
science
body of knowledge, unified insights, collection of theories
theory
set of principles supported by evidence
scientific method
1)observaion
2)question
3)hypothesis
4)experimentation
5)conclusion
observation
observe natural world
hypothesis
possible explanations (testable and falsifiable)
deduction
general -> specific
induction
specific -> general
experimentation
testing of hypothesis
naturalistic science
-obs. of natural world under natural conditions
-basis of biology
-descriptive, observation
experimental science
-artifically contrive situations to test hypotheses
ethics
-beliefs of right and wrong
-moral judgements and
justifications
deontological
-duty-based ethics, based on acts
utilitarian
-focus on consequences
Lamark
theory that said new trait arrives when it is needed
Mendel
-discovered pattern of inheritance through experiments with breeding plants
dominant trait
masks the other trait
recessive trait
masked by the other trait
phenotype
what is seen
genotype
coding (ex. SS, Ss, sS, ss)
chromosomes
-DNA is packaged
-genes control traits
-23 pairs of 2 in humans
diploid
-2N
-2 copies of each gene
haploid
-N
-1 copy of each gene
-found in human gametes
somatic cell
body cell
karyotype
visiualize chromosomes
autosomal chromosomes
everything but sex chromosomes
sex chromosomes
x or y
Klinefelter Syndrome
-XXY
-male carrier
Turner Syndrome
-XO
-female carrier
Y chromosome
-its presence determines sex
SRY protein
-gene on Y chromosome
-testes determining factor
double helix
-2 stranded backbone
-base pairing of phosphates:
- A&T
- G&C
DNA polymerase
-enzyme that peels apart and adds new nucleotides
gene
-1 segment of DNA
-directs production of 1 protein
protein
-string of 20 amino acids
mRNA
-molecule that travels between DNA and protein
-nucleic acid
-single-stranded
-U instead of T
transcription
-DNA unwound
-polymerase directs prodcution of RNA copy using 1 strand of DNA
-RNA molecule released
mutation
-change in DNA sequence
additions/deletions
-cause frameshifts in DNA sequence
substitution
-1 nucleotide produced instead of the other
-aka pt. mutation
silent mutation
mutation that makes no difference in DNA sequence
restriction enzymes
-allow DNA to be cut and put back together
-come from bacteria
-cuts DNA at either blunt or sticky ends
genomes
all DNA in a cell
comparitive genomics
-comparing genomes of different organisms together
-identify important genes
-classification of organisms
functional genomics
-locate genes and deduce function based on similarities w/ other genes
DNA fingerprinting
-crime investigation
-paternatity tests
-identifying relation
RFLP
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
evolution
process of lasting change over time in biological populations
Lamark
-1st proposal of change over time
-proposed adaptation and aquired traits
adaptation
organism's change in response to its enviornment, tries to improve chance for survival
aquired trait
develop new traits that can be passed down into offspring
Reverend Paley
structure so perfectly designed, only be made by designer
Lyndell
geological forces operating, earth changing over time
Cuvier
-examined fossils
-proposal of extinction
-several rounds of creation
Darwin
-modern theory of evolution
-"Origin of Species" - 1859
branching descent
species today derived from ancient species
natural selection
parents w/ traits that improve survival and reproduction will have more offspring, skews population to those traits
mimicry
-evidence for Natural Selection
-1 species looks like another to protect itself
-ex. coral snake/king snake; viceroy/monarch
industrial melanism
-pollution caused by industry change environment and organisms change in response
-ex. pepper moths on trees
disease resistance
-evidence of natural selection
-ex. sickle cell anemia = resistance to malaria
homologies
-evidence for branching descent
-similarity implying shared ancestors
-anatomical/genetic
vestigal structures
-found in an organism, don't seem to have a function
-ex. eyes in fish that live in dark, human tailbone
convergance
-evidence for branching descent
-similar structures that have developed independantly in unrelated structures because of pressures of enviornment
fossil record
-evidence of branching descent
-progression from simple to complex organisms
genetic drift
sudden decrease in population and randomly some alleles more represented in survivors
speciation
-production of new species
-barrier in reproduction (ie geographic barrier, different mating seasons)
-fertile offspring never produced (ie sperm never enters egg, chromosomes don't match up)
species
population of inter-breeding organisms that are reproductively isolated
Bible-based creationism
-literal interpretation of Genesis 1&2
-6 24 hour days
-anti-science (many are)
Intelligent Design creationism
-irreducible complexity (system will only function if all parts are present and functioning)
-can't evolve in Darwin's piece-like way b/c all of the parts are needed all of the time
-can't be tested/falsified
Theistic Evolution
-not literal interpretation of Genesis 1&2 - story to convey basic truths
-evolution is process God chose to use
microevolution
-could explain small variation between species
macroevolution
-major jumps (ie monkey to man, etc.)
systematics
-comparative biology
-determining relatedness of organisms
-identify similarities
-group organisms
-naming system
taxonomy
-naming/classifying organisms
-similarities/differences
morphology
-identification based on shape/appearance
embryology
-identification based on development
classical method of deducing evolutionary relationships
-look at evidence, make phylogenetic tree
cladistics
-determines branching system
-construct cladogram
-look at derived traits in living organisms
-will share ancestoral traits
procaryotes
-like bacteria
-unicellular
-small
-plasma membrane and cell wall
-no internal membrane
-asexual reproduction
-plasmids
eucaryotes
-everything not procaryote
-unicellular or multicellular
-large
-cytoskeleton
-internal and external membranes
-organelles
-sometimes have cell wall
-sexual or asexual
-thought to evolve from procaryote
plasmid
small, circular piece of DNA
cytoskeleton
shape, movement, organizes organelles
organelle
-mitochondria, golgi apparatus, etc.
-internal membranes
Kingdom Archaea
-procaryotic, unicellular
-organisms all live in extreme enviornments
Domain Eukarya/Kingdom Protista
-multicellular
-asexual
-photosynthetic
-ingest other organisms
-some non-motile, some sillia, some psuedopods, some flagella
Domain Eukarya/Kingdom Plantae
-usually multicellular
-photosynthetic
-non-motile
-have cell wall
-3 types: alge, bryophytes, vascular plants
-sexually reproduce
alge
-aquatic
-photosynthetic
-no vascular system
-some cellular specialization
bryophytes
-mosses, etc.
-moist enviornment
-no vascular system
-gametes must be carried by water
-low to the ground
-all cells are photosynthetic
vascular plants
-have vascular system/can transport water/nutrients
-taller
-cellular specialization
Domain Eukarya/Kingdom Mycota
-fungus
-unicellular or multicellular
-produce spores
-asexual/sexual reproduction
-ability to secrete digestive enzymes and absorb smaller nutrients into cells
-mostly non-motile
-cell wall
-some parasitic
Domain Eukarya/Kingdom Animalia
-very diverse
-multicelluar
-sexual reproduction
-nutrition through ingestion
-general derived characteristics
distinct germ layers
-specialization of cells at embryotic stage
-ectoderm (nervous tissue, skin)
-endoderm (intestinal tract, apendages of intestinal)
-mesoderm (muscle and bone)
symmetry
-radial symmetry - symmetry around a central point
-asymmetry - no symmetry
-bilateral symmetry - symmetry across middle
body cavity
-room for expandable organs
-protection for internal organs
-psuedocoelom, coelom, none
psuedocoelom
-semi-body cavity
-not covered by mesoderm on all sides
coelom
-mesoderm on all sides of body cavity
where mouth develops
-protostomes/deuterostomes
protostome
-mouth 1st
-where cells start to move inward becomes mouth
deuterostome
-secondary mouth
-wherre cells start to move inward becomes anus
-humans
segmentation
-important for movement and development
porifera
-phyla
-sponges
-no derived traits
cnidaria
-phyla
-hydra, jellyfish, etc.
-derived traits: -radial symmetry
- 2 germ layers (ecto/endo)
-polyp/medusa
platyhelminthes
- phyla
-flat worms, tapeworms, etc.
-derived traits: -3 germ layers
-tissue specialization
-specific reproductive tissue
-bilateral symmetry
nematoda
-round worms
-derived traits: all above +
-true body cavity
-protostome
annelida
-earthworm
-derived traits: all above +
-segmentation
chordata
-3 subphyla:
-lancet
-tunicate
-vertabrata
subphyla vertabrata
-body cavity
-deuterostome
-notocord
-gill slits
order:primates
-large, front-facing eyes
-binocular vision
-limbs with opposable thumbs
family: hominidae
-humans, all extinct hominids
-bipedalism (walk on 2 feet)
hominid
-lost wrist ridges/locking elbows
-develped spongey substance in leg
-forward facing toes
-parallel feet
genus: ardipithecus
-oldest, chimp traits
-4.5 mill. years ago
genus: australopitheus
-Lucy
-2.5-4.5 mill. years ago
genus: homo
-homoergaster - 1.5 mill. years ago, close to humans
-homo erectus - 50,000 yrs. ago
-homo sapien - our moders species
multi-regional theory
-everything since homo ergaster is part of homo sapien
-slow blending of all regions together
replacement theory
-homo sapiens coming to be in Africa
-migrate and out compete every other genus
population
-individuals in 1 geographical area that interbreed
Hardy-Weinberg equation
-used to deduce allelic frequencies from phenotypic frequencies
equilibrium
population where frequency of alleles is consistant over time
innate behavior
-genetically encoded
-directly influenced by natural selection
-ex. escape response, threat response, mating rituals
annual internal clock
-seasonal changes
-migration, mating, hibernation
daily internal clock
-circadian rhythm
-foraging, sleep
learned behavior
-not genetically encoded
-not directly influenced by natural selection
-aquired through experience after birth
-ex. how to read, speaking, using tools
asexual reproduction
-benefits: passing on 100% of genetic makeup, don't have to find mate
-costs: if enviornment changes, no hope of change/mutation
sexual reproduction
-benefits: offspring better adapted than parents, parental investment higher
-costs: expend more energy, only pass on 50% of genetic makeup
monogamy
-strong parental investment
-mate for life
polygyny
-single male w/ many femals
-competition w/in males
polyandry
-1 female with many males
-very rare
promiscuity
-everyone mates w/ everyone
k-selection
-population determined by carrying capacity
-stable
-favorable/unchanging enviornment
-long-lived
-parental investment high
r-selection
-population determined by reproduction
-unstable
-low parental investment
-short-lived
follicle stimulation hormone
-secreted by pituitary gland
-starts development of follicles
-peaks at ovulation
lutenizing hormone
-secreted by pituitary gland
-peaks at ovulation
estrogen
-secreted by ovaries
-peaks at ovulation
progesterone
-secreted by corpus luteum
-maintains thickness of endometrium
birth control
-more ovarian hormones
-prevents production of pituitary hormones
zygote
fertilized egg
blastocyst
sphere with mass of cells in middle
macronutrients
-carbohydrates
-lipids
-proteins
carbohydrates
-sugars
-give us energy
lipids
-water insoluable
-long chains of carbon bonds
-tryiglycerides/cholesterol
-energy use/storage
-carry other fat-soluable molecules into body
triglycerides
-saturated v. non-saturated determined by how many double bonds
cholesterol
-non-polar
-high content in animal fats
phospholipids
-non-polar fatty acid tails
-polar head
-in water - tails go away from water, heads go towards
protein
-structural component
-bring things through membrane
-cytoskeleton
-packaging DNA
micronutrients
-vitamins
-minerals
vitamins
-complex nutrients only needed in small quantities
-structural components
-anti-oxidants - prevent unneccesary oxidation
minerals
-organic ion/metal
-structural components
-used in hemoglobin
-store energy
-water retention
ion
-charged atom
-ex. sodium, potassium, calcium
metal
ex. iron, zinc
motility
-process of digestive system
-direction to tract
-ex. swallowing
secretion
-process of digestive system
-adding things to digestive tract
-mucus, digestive enzymes, bile, bilirubin
digestion
-process of digestive system
-breaking down larger molecules into smaller
-mechanical/chemical
chemical digestion
-directed by enzymes
absorbtion
-process of digestive system
-movement of molecules from inside intestines into cells
-absorb nutrients/other secretions
diffusion
-molecules move from high concentration to low concentration
-no energy required
-cross bilipid layer (anything fat-soluable)
-or channel (protein in cell membrane)
-or carrier (protein in cell membrane, like channel but w/ binding site inside)
active transport
-low concentration to high
-requires energy
-uses a carrier w/ energy
endocytosis
-membrane invaginates and then pinches off, creating a vesicle
-encloses molecules and then carries them into cell
blood
-plasma and cells (ie hemoglobin, immune cells) and platelets
blood vessels
-arteries, veins, capillaries
ateries
-carry blood away from heart
vein
-carry blood towards heart
capillaries
-very small
-very thin wall for maximum diffusion
heart
-cardiac muscle
-4-chambered
homeostasis
-keeping things at steady rate
-gluclose level in blood is highly regulated by insulin and glucogon
insulin
-when glucose levels are too high, it causes glucose to be taken into cells
glucogon
-when glucose levels are too low, it causes the liver to release glucose stores
autotropes
-make own food
photosynthesis
-using energy in light to make carbs
-light reactions and dark reactions
-both happen in chloroplasts
light reactions
-light and H2O in
-energy (ATP, NADPH) is produced
-O2 is released
dark reactions
-ATP, NADPH fed in
-glucose and CO2 are produced through Calvin Cycle
dermal tissue
-cuticle, trichome, and stomata
cuticle
-waxy covering on surface of plant
-keeps invaders out
-prevents water from evaporating
trichome
-stalk-like extensions from surface
-can be used for absorbtion, secretion
stomata
-small holes mostly on surface of leaves
-main location for gas exchange
-opening/closing can be regulated by guard cells
vascular tissue
-xylem/phloem
xylem
-H2O moved up plant
-made of dead cells
-water moved by suction
phloem
-nutrients moved up and down
-live cells
-water moved by osmosis
osmosis
-movement of water into regions of high solute concentration
-glucose is actively pumped across membrane, water follows it
fertilizers
-supply plants with needed nutrients
-natural (manure, composting, etc.)
-chemical (nitrate,etc.)
risks: surrounding eviornment unintentionally overly nutrient enriched
irrigation
-water is limiting nutrient, so maximize H2O supply
cancer
-cells w/ genetic mutations that collectively cause them to grow in an uncontrollable manner indefinately
properties of cancer cells
-divide uncontrollably
-fail to communicate appropriately with other cells
-move inappropriately or aggressively throughout body
-change gene expression
-refuse to die
malignant tumor
-aggressive - moves into and invades other tissue, can travel in blood stream
benign tumor
-cannot move
oncogene
-mutated gene
-when mutated promote cell growth/division
tumor-suppresor genes
-when mutated lose function (inhibit cell growth)
risk factors of cancer
-age
-inherited predisposition
-virus
-radiation
-chemical carciongens
-diet
age
-risk factor of cancer
-accumlation of mutations over time
-DNA repair mechanisms get worn out
inherited predisposition
-risk factor of cancer
-inherit 1 copy of mutated gene
-inherit defect in DNA repair mechanism
virus
-risk factor of cancer
-carry mutated oncogene
-20% cancers worldwide
radiation
-risk factor of cancer
-UV rays - skin cancer
-ionizing - x-rays, atomic bomb, etc.
chemical carcinogens
-risk factor of cancer
-causes mutations
-ex. tobacco, industrial waste, etc.
diet
-risk factor of cancer
-30% cancers worldwide
-low in fat, high in fiber, high in antioxidants = good diet