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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
habitat
collection of enviornmental conditions in a place
community
all species living/interacting in one place
niche
unique role in community
ecosystem
community + enviornment
biome
related ecosystems grouped together
chaparral
- rainy winters
- dry summers
- small evergreen shrubs
- w. side of land masses
- santa barbara, chile, etc.
parasitism
1 organism gains, 1 is harmed
predation
1 organism gains, 1 is harmed
mututalism
both organisms gain
commensalism
1 organism gains, 1 is unaffected
competition
both organisms are harmed
biodiversity
-#/variance of identified species
-exact amount unknown
(5-30 mill. species unidentified)
biosphere
land, water, atmosphere, living organisms
land
rocks, soil
water
is everywhere - water vapor, oceans, rivers, lakes, evaporation, precipitation
atmosphere
gases: nitrogen + oxygen = 99%
other: 1%
living organisms
insects, animals, plants, fugus, protists, bacteria, etc.
insects
50% of identified organisms
animals
20% of identified organisms
plants
20% of identified organisms
fungus, protists, bacteria, etc.
10% of identified species
Central Nervous System (CNS)
-brain/spinal cord
-recieves info from PNS
-sends commands to rest of body
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
-everything outside of CNS
-ex. nerves, sensory organs
-collects info. and sends it to the CNS
tract
-CNS
-bundle of axons
nuclei
-CNS
-bundle of cell bodies
nerve
-PNS
-bundle of axons
ganglion
-PNS
-bundle of cell bodies
neuron
-responsible for processing/carrying of info.
dendrites
recieve chemical messages
axon
covered by myelin
myelin
fatty insulation
glia
-support/protect neurons
-outnumber neurons 3:1
blood-brain barrier (bbb)
unique property of veins in nervous system that keeps blood from leaking in brain
sensory neurons
-collect information
-specialized to one modality
photo receptor
-rods/cones
-respond to light intensity/wavelength
-specialized to light - action potential
rod
-senses light intensity
-activated in dim light
-doesn't distinguish colors
cone
-senses light wavelength
-specialized to colors
colorblind
missing a cone
hair cell
-specialized to sound waves
-detect vibrations in cochlea
-membrane vibrates and moves bones in inner ear, vibrates 2nd membrane, causes vibrations in fluid, moves hair cells
-action potential is reached when "hairs" vibrate
cochlea
spiral canal in inner ear filled with fluid
sensory cells
-specialized to smell/taste
-taste buds/olfactory receptors
taste buds
-detect sweet/salty/bitter/sour
-presence of chemicals = action potential
olfactory receptors
-specialized to scent
-presence of chemicals = action potential
naked nerve endings
-specialized to pain
-sense secreted molecule
-detect pressure
molecules secreted
-secreted from stressed or damaged cells
-travel to nerve endings
= action potential
detect pressure
pressure on nerve endings = action potential
sensory detectors
-sense muscle length/tension
-pressure = action potential
forebrain
higher learning, memory, vision, hearing, sensations from skin, etc.
midbrain
positive reenforcement sensory area
hindbrain
coordination, balance, involuntary movements, etc.
learning
change in behavior/knowledge based on experience
declaritive learning
-can be verbalized
-people, places, things, concepts
-requires hippocampus
procedural learning
-learning how to do things
-linked to behavior
-doesn't require hippocampus
-response to simple stimuli (habituation and sensitization)
habituation
stops responding to repeated harmless stimuli (i.e. clock ticking, wearing clothes)
sensitization
harmful stimuli cause intensified response to less severe but related stimuli (i.e. fear of dogs)
short term memory
seconds/minutes
long term memory
days/years
forgetting
-active
-brain decides what is important, what isn't
-frees up space
exocytosis
vesicles fuse w/ plasma of synaptic terminal and release transmitters into space between cells
pathogens
-organisms that cause disease inside body
-ex. virus, protist, fungus, bacteria, self-replicating proteins
-enter and kill host cells
-prevent healthy tissue function
-make toxins
immune system
-fight infection/cancer
-recognizes self/non-self
-heals wounds
-comprised of white blood cells
white blood cells
-derived of bone marrow
-travel in blood/lymph vessels
innate immune system
-born w/ it
-respond 1st to infection
-cells engulf bacteria, migrate up lymph vessel to lymph node, present bacteria and activate specific immunity
specific immune system
-developed after birth
-uses lymphocytes to kill and neutralize pathogens and toxins
lymphocytes
t-cells, b-cells
b-cell
-receptor binds directly to pathogen
-create antibodies
antibodies
-coat bacteria, pathogens, etc.
-kill/neutralize
t-cell
-relies on other cells to present bacteria instead of binding directly
-cause cells to apotose
-coordinate other immune cells
memory cells
-specific b/t cells in blood stream
-more easily activated
-ex. chicken pox
vaccine
creates memory cells
memory cells
-specific b/t cells in blood stream
-more easily activated
-ex. chicken pox
vaccine
creates memory cells