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13 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are 2 things phylogenic trees can be reconstructed based on?
Morphological changes and DNA sequences
Give an example of the co-speciation seen using a phylogenetic approach.
Mosquito-malaria relationship
When were Neanderthals discovered?
Neander Valley of Germany in 1856
Describe the Neanderthal history with respect to humans.
It is believed that the Neandertahls lived in Euro. between 300,000 to 30,000 years ago and coexcited with H. sapiens during some time of their history.
What is the "Out-of-Africa" hypothesis?
H. sapiens arose from a single AFrican population about 100,000 to 200,000 years ago and replaced the pre-existing archaic humans.
What is the "Multiregional" model?
The modern human arose independently and concurrently from several archaid lineages that lived across different parts of the world - some of the modern humans are more closely related to archac humans than to each other
What will we be amplifying in this lab?
A non-coding control region called the "D-loop" from our mitocontrial DNA
What are we comparing our mitochondrial DNA to?
That of Neandertahsl, chimpanzees, and other known human populations
Why is mtDNA useful?
There are many copies of its genome within a cell, while there are only 2 copies of nuclear genes. Each cell contains several thousand mitochondria.

Also, it is hypervariable and accumulates mutations 10 times faster than the nuclear genome ~ most people have a unique pattern of DNa sequences in this region and exhibit single nucleotide polymorphisms
How is the DNA concentrated into a pelet after collection?
What is done with the collected DNA?
1. Samples are heated to break up the cells and denature proteins
2. Add Chelex beads
What are Chelex beads?
Bind to Mg+ ions that are essential cofactors for DNAase activity and remove them away from the DNA to protect DNA from being nicked
How big is the region of mtDNA we are going to amplify?
~300 bp