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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
circadian rhythms
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle.
REM sleep
rapid eye movement sleep. a recurring sleep stage during which dreams commonly occur.
alpha waves
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
delta waves
the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep.
manifest content
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream.
latent content
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream.
REM rebound
the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeating awakenings during REM sleep).
posthypnotic amnesia
supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis; induced by the hypnotist's suggestion.
a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simulataneously with others.
hidden observer
Hilgard's term describing a hypnotized subject's awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis.
associative learning
learning that two events occur together.
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus.
unconditioned response (UCR)
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occuring response to the unconditioned stimulus (UCS).
In Pavlov's experiment, the salivation when food is in the mouth.
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically-triggers a response.
In Pavlov's experiment, the food fed to the dogs.
conditioned response (CR)
the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS).
In Pavlov's experiment, the salivation after hearing the tone (CS).
conditioned stimulus (CS)
an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
In Pavlov's experiment, the tone.
the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response.
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs when an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS).
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response.
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal and unconditioned stimulus.
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
operant chamber (Skinner box)
a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research.
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal.
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
fixed-ratio schedule
a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
variable-ratio schedule
a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
fixed-interval schedule
a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
variable-interval schedule
a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
overjustification effect
the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. The person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task.
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation (as in observational learning), language learning, and empathy.
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes.
psychologist specializing in social cognitive theory. He is most famous for his social learning theory and the 'Transmission of Aggression through Imitation of Aggressive Models' experiment.
Ivan Pavlov
behaviorist; first to describe the classical conditioning type of learning
dog salivation experiment
B.F. Skinner
behaviorist psychologist noted for his work on schedules of reinforcement and the invention of the operant chamber, also known as the "Skinner box."
John B. Watson
psychologist who established the psychological school of behaviorism.
also known for the controversial "Little Albert" experiment