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58 Cards in this Set

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Weeks
LGBT is/could be: recognize need to learn & live with difference, rooted in political & cultural stance claiming justice, questioning sexual orthodozy & critiques the heterosexual norm, contesting existing knowledge by redefining who has the right & expertise to speak about homosexuality
kinsey
7 point scale (0 being straight and 6 being completely homo), 1948 report found 10% pop gay, 3% of women lesbian
hite report
1976, found 10% women to be lesbian
kinsey (70s and 80s)
13% of males gay, 7% females lesbian
guttmacher (1993)
2.5% males exclusively homoerotic behavior, 1% males id as gay
foucalt
historical perspective, development of discourse about sexuality: "a history of categories or representations, a history of the different ways taht different historical cultures have put sexuality into language" - historical & constructed entity
erotes
4th cent. ad Greece: to have fixed sexual object choice of any kind is to be some sort of freak
discrete v. continuous sex
biology: are their boys and girls (i.e. two boxes) or is their a continuous spectrum? - consider atypical external genitals and atypical urinary openings - XY: penoclitoris called hypospadias and XX: clitoropenis called partial urogenital fusion with clitoromegaly
sex chromosomes discrete or continuous?
xx - female, xy - male, xxx - female some cog impairment, xxy - klinefelter syndrome (1/800 males) little to no cog impairment, XO - turner syndrome (1/3000 females) with some cog impairment/learning disorders
stein (1999) conceptual analysis: what constitutes a person's sexual orientation?
1. behavioral view, 2. self-id view (weight to own assessment), 3. dispositional view (kinsey view), psychophysiological assessment view (sexual orientation reflected in objectively measured sexual arousal: penile plethysmography and vaginal pulse amplitude)
Greene (2000): what is gender?
cultural categories, rules, behaviors, rights, responsibilities, privileges & personality traits assigned in a given culture to males & females (i.e. social construction), gender id is psychological constuct (sense of who and what they are)
gender violators (internationally)
Berdache in NA tribes, Oman territory of Persian Gulf, Thailand, India (Hiira) and Tahiti (Thhu)
regimes of disciplinary powers tools:
comparison, differentiation, prescription, exclusion, constraint, normalization, andd surveillance
evironmental ways of learning gender:
evolution, behaviorism (stimulus - response - stimulus), social learning (imitation), psychoanalytic (Oedipus and Electra complex), cognitive (schema development by Piageet)
Gough femininity scale
places gender on single, bipolar construct (one or the other) - high of both femininity and masculinity is androgynous
parental manipulation theory
parents subconciously decide it would be better if their family's resources were focused on certain offspring and thus behave towards certain child in way that makes him/her become gay (and a "helper advantage" to nieces and nephews)
sexual interaction oriented theories: imprinting theory
critical period for imprinting of sexuality, early maturing males spend most of the time with other males (and they imprint on each other)
sexual interaction oriented theories: sexual reinforcment theory
operant conditioning (orgasm as powerful reinforcement) - one-trial learning (first encounter cements orientation), terrible heteroS experience, seduction theory - people will not "naturally" develop into heteros unless seduced by "predatory" homo
self-labeling theory
hs role confusion, child adopts label given to him/her b/c of gender atypicality (little evidential support)
inappropriate sex-role training
inadequate role modeling - gender atypical child will become homo (affects homo parents who try hard to provide "good gender role models")
Bem's Exotic to Erotic (1995)
genetic/bio influence child temperment (aggression and activity levels) which causes them to gender non-conforming activities, they are not aroused by playmates b/c have similar temperments/activities/interests and thus erotic arousal comes from anxiety felt by those who are diff/exotic (exotic to erotic)
Bem's Exotic to Erotic stats
71% gay men and 70% lesbians report they felt diff from same-sex peers as kids (citing gender related issues and not liking gender-typical activities)
1 trait in childhood that strong predicts gay/lesbian
gender non-conformity - may have to do with androgens and biology during development (suggests sexual orientation is fixed at birth and gender bending is just a manifestation - not a cause)
Bailey
boys showing pervasive and persistant effeminate behavior have 75% change of becoming gay (d=1.131 men, d=.96 women)
Von Kraft-Ebbing (1886) and Ellis (1915)
first serious attempts to explain causes of HS (beyond religious dogma (i.e. sin) and family environment): first theories suggested HS was inborn b/c no unusual enviro experiences AND discovery that HS behavior was common in animals too (450 species)
sexual differentiation
mammalian embryo is bipotential in early stages, "eve principle" in absence of y-chrom gonads secrete estrogen, "adam principle" in presence of y chrom gonads secrete testosterone
hormonally induced sexual dimorphism
diff of external genitalia is unitypic (single set of structures with 2 possible destinies) and of internal organs is ambitypic (male and female structures are both present) - depending on triumph of A/E principle one set of internal genitalia will proliferate while other set vestigates
how hormones mold the brain
default brain is female and in order to make it male it must be exposed to testosterone (male brain structures differentiate too)
stein (1999) perinatal hormonal control theory
"central claim... is that a person's sexual orientation is inborn or determined at a very early age and as a result is 'wired into' his/her brain" i.e. brains of homos are different - most of the biological research on sexual orientation makes unjustified assumptions
stein (1999) 3 conceptual models of the role genes and other bio factors play in sex orientation
permissive model, direct model, indirect model
kaplan (1990) test
sampled testosterone in amniotic fluid of fetuses (follow up 18 years later and boys with lowest levels were gay)
each older brother increases odds of being gay by:
33-48% - due to maternal immune response to the presence of foreign cells in her blood during pregnancy
Gorski (1977)
rat hypothalamus is dimorphic (larger in males)
Locoste and Hooloway (1982)
corpus callosum in humans is dimorphic (female larger than males)
swaab (1990)
suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus in gay men is twice as large as in straight men (hypothalamus monitors sex drive and pituary gland) - "difference in homo is brain not the heart"
allen (1990)
unable to replicate swaab (but found that 2/4 structure of the interstitial nuclei of anterior hypothalamus (INAH 2 and 3) are larger in men
roselli (1995)
hypothalamus of "gay" buck sheep differs in size from that of "straight" bucks
LeVay (1991)
on average INAH 3 is larger in straight men than in gay men & women (but sampling problems)
McFadden (1997)
sex diff in brain wave patterns - when performing spatial reasoning tasks the wave patterns of gay males more closely resemble women than heteroS males
McFadden & Pasanen (1998)
inner ears of lesbians work more like those of men (i.e. have undergone mascuanization)
Hall & Kimura
throwing accuracy - gay men like straight women and lessies slightly better than straight women
Savic (2005)
tested exposure to odors that might be involved in sexual arousal (AND and EST) - EST fired up hypothalamus in straight men v. activate hypo. in women and gay men, AND fired up hypothalamus in straight women and gay men but activated straight men
Dickson (2005)
studied fruit flies and found gene to "determin all aspects of the flies sexual orientation & behavior)
Gill (1963)
radiation causes genetic mutations in drosophilia melanogaster (fruit flies?) that results in homosexual courtship
Hirshfield (1936)
male HS has "familial taint" - heritability estimates from .31 to .74 suggest that possible 70% of variance in HS is due to genes, 30% due to environment
Bailey & Pillard (1991)
if a gene creates a trait, the pattern should be visible (males: 52% MZ brothers gay, 22% DZ gay, 11% adopted gay, females: 48% MZ both lessie, 16% DZ, 6% adopted sis)
Dean Hamer
pedigree analysis (how a trait is spread out among members of an extended family) - gay brothers have above random chance likelihood of sharing DNA markers in certain region of X chromosome (Xq28 region of X chromosome) - but straight brothers were not examined
evolutionary theory: does somehow contribue to reproductive success of family/group?
1. kin selection, 2. group selection (devote self to arts/other things that help all, gene there for intrinsic reason), 3. piggyback trait (gene there for a coincidental reason - HS associate with some other trait that leads to reproductive success)
% of population that never experiences disclosure
10%
cohen & savin-williams on disclosure (1996)
phase of internal awareness, to private acceptance, to public disclosure (integrating I to Me)
CASS
confusion, comparison, tolerance, acceptance, pride, synthesis
interpersonal congruence theory
stability and change in a person's life are influenced by the congruence or incongruence that exists in one's interpersonal environment (progression from one developmental stage to another is propelled by tension and incongruities within an interpersonal matrix)
Goffman (1963)
"stigma" - describes how various groups (including racial/ethnic, disabled, elderly, obese) manage their "spoiled" identities
Yoshino (2005)
Covering - people who are ready to admit possession of a stigma may make great effort to keep stigma from looming large (covering is managing the obtrusiveness of the spoiled id)
defense mechanisms
denial, claim innocence, make excuses: a phase, an experiment,
defense mechanisms among adolescents:
hide desires, resort to casual encounters, pass as straight, rationalization, make insignificant, compartmentalization, withdrawal to celibate, sublimation (putting deviant energy into something else)
maladaptive responses:
denial/suppression, internalized homophobia, drug/alcohol addiction, social isolation, depression, suicidal ideation/attempts, problematic relationships, poor physical health, passing as straight
Hunter, Shannon, Knox, & Martin (1998)
homophobia, biphobia (both seen as illness - social disease) - an irrational fear or prejudice