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29 Cards in this Set

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Discuss the Russian Reds & Whites
-the anti-communists forces, backed by the western nations that won WW1, would now wage civil war against the communists.
- The whites controlled the outlying areas of Russia
-C ommunists were known as the Reds

-Lenin would introduce terror as a tactic to eliminate opponents and control dissent

-from 1918-1920 the civil war continued

-with the help of foreign powers the whites were better armed. However the Reds, led effectively by Trotsky, controlled the interior which made it easier to transport and communicate

-the other advantage the reds had was that they were united. The whites were really just anyone against the communists. Not a united force
What were Stalin's 5 year plans?
-Stalin stated that the USSR was 50 years behind the western nations and vulnerable to those nations. He planned for a rapid catch up which became know as his 5 year plans

-the first 5 year plans (1928-32) focused on heavy industries. In particular coal, iron, steel and oil

-pressure was put on factory workers and managers. There were rewards for success but failure was met harshly

-new cities, factories, mines, dams, oil fields, etc were created

-increase in production was significant. A second 5 year plan began in 1933 and went to 1937. It also focused on heavy industries

-unrealistic, targets for these 5 year plans were established

-incentives continued as did the heavy handed discipline

-by 1940, the USSR had overtaken Britain in steel production and had nearly caught up to Germany

-the third 5 year plan was designed to emphasize light industry or consumer goods. However the growth of Germany’s power by 1937 turned the emphasis to armaments as the USSR prepared for the possibility of war

-these successes in increasing production and modernizing Soviet industries positioned the USSR to be able to fight WW2. As well it set the USSR up to be one of only 2 superpowers after WW2

-while the 5 year plans were harsh, overall life for the average worker improved. In the countryside it was another story
Discuss Stalin's purges.
-Stalin was a paranoid man who tolerated no rivals.
-Stalin perceived two potential threats. One was from the old Bolsheviks leaders who had been part of the revolution from the beginning. The second threat was from the military leadership
-he looked to eliminate any possible threat or person of dissent.
-the major communist party leaders (old Bolshevik leaders) were arrested and put on trial. These trials were called “show trials”
-In 1937 he purged the military effectively eliminating 1/3 of their officers and most of the higher officers.
- With the most capable military leaders gone, this made the struggle against Germany in WW2 more difficult

-Stalin’s regime functioned where no one ever felt too comfortable
What was collectivization?
forced “collectivization” where land would be put together into larger state owned and operated farms. Peasants would work on these farms that would employ tractors and other modern farming equipment

-the problem was that a wealthy peasant class called Kulaks had emerged. They owned medium sized farms and did not want to give up what they had
What were some of the causes of WW2?
The Second World War was caused by:

a. Hitler’s Aims
b. The aggression of Hitler’s Allies
c. Democratic powers were passive
d. The League of Nations failed to keep peace
What did Anchlusse have to do with the beginning of WW2?
The Anschluss of Germany with Austria (13th march, 1938) was a cause of war because it broke the Treaty of Versailles and Treaty of St. Germain (10th September, 1919)
What did Sudetenland have to do with teh beginning of WW2?
The Nazi annexation of the Sudetenland after the Munich conference (29th September 1938) was a cause of war, because it broke the Treaty of St. Germain.
What did the Rhineland have to do with the beginning of WW2?
The remilitarization of the Rhineland (7th march, 1936) was a cause of war because it broke the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Pacts (1925)
Discuss major points about Communists & Nationalists in China.
-in 1925 Chiang Kai-shek becomes the Nationalist’s leader and moved the party away form democracy and socialism

-under Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi), the Nationalists expanded control to the northern parts of China. The Nationalists/Kuomintang became a party of generals and wealthy landowners

-Chiang purged his party of communists in 1927. The communist party would be reformed under Mao Tse-tung. The communists hid in the country side and would become increasingly popular with China’s landless peasants

-in 1934, the communists were on the brink of exterminations but broke out and marched to safety in the North. This long journey and struggle saw only 30,000 out of 90,000 communists survive. This was known as the Long March. The key points to the Long March are that the communists or People’s Liberation Army (Red Army):
-got away, regrouped and rebuilt
-treated the peasants well when they traveled through their land (paid for what they needed, etc)

-Mao’s appeal to the peasantry was dangerous to Chiang and the nationalists and he would continue to try to destroy the communists

-another point-Chinese communism differed from Marxist’s ideas in that Mao believed that his revolution would be peasant based

-Chiang’s attempts to eliminate the communists would take priority over fighting the Japanese

-he believed that Japan would eventually be defeated by Britain and the US, so his focus was on the greater long term threat to the nationalist’s control over China. This was the communists

-the communists and Mao on the other hand urged that both sides should fight the Japanese (first) then settle the dispute between the two

-the communists were seen as more strongly trying to get the Japanese out of China than the nationalists. This was another factor giving the communists greater popular support

-the Japanese invasion of the rest of China in 1937 would force Chiang to deal more with the Japanese threat and work reluctantly with the communists

-the struggle between the nationalists and communists would be put on hold until after WW2. After the war it would continue
What was the impact of WW1 on Germany?
* borders in 1914- look at the handout

* they were defeated but there was no fighting on German soil. Their population never saw the horrible effects of the war or their military defeated. Led to a great myth later which was exploited by Hitler

* Kaiser and his military leadership were out and a new democratic government, the Weimer Republic, was put in place. The WR would be blamed later for the treaty of Versailles.

* Germany expected a fair peace treaty as indicated by Wilson and his 14 points
population was pretty much oblivious to war and its effects
What was the impact of WW1 on Austria Hungary?
* multiple ethnic nation

* their defeat helped increase nationalist movements in the empire
What was the impact of WW1 on UK?
* defended Belgium and entered the war

* primary concern after the war was their empire and maintaining naval supremacy in the world. Were not as concerned with punishing Germany.

* had fought in the middle east against the Ottoman Empire and made promises to the Arab nationalists who helped them

* overall, W.W.I saw an increase in role played by the dominions (i.e. Canada) who demanded great say in the peace treaty process
Not so concerned about Germany's punishment, more oncerned about themselves.
What was the impact of WW1 on France?
defeated in 1871 by Germany and lost Alsace-Lorriane. Were not please by this and held resentment towards Germany even before W.W.I

* France was the site of much of the trench warfare

* had lost the highest % of its population of all the nations involved in W.W.I

* wanted to punish Germany
Pissed off, most faught on their land.
What was the impact of WW1 on Russia?
* were poorly equipped and led during W.W.I.
- suffered horrible losses on the eastern front
- would eventually lead to 2 revolutions in Russia.
- The 1st got rid of the Tsar
- the 2nd put the Bolsheviks/communists in charge

* Lenin pulled Russia out of the war in 1917 with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. - Gave up much land in this treaty
- from 1918-1920 fought a civil war between the communists (reds) and everyone else (whites). The reds won and the Bolsheviks formed the USSR.
Losses, led to revolutions
What was the impact of WW1 on US?
* was in the process of becoming a great power. Was already a great industrial/economic power

* Started W.W.I in isolationism

* later joined largely due to submarine warfare by Germany

* entry and mobilization spelled the end for Germany. They brought huge resources and fresh troops.

* President Wilson advocated a fair peace based on his 14 points. The U.S. was largely idealist.
Got off pretty good.
Discuss 3 issues of the Treaty of Versailles
* Lost Territory (see handout) and German people
-polish corridor
- Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France
-Saar was left independent whose future would later be determined by a plebiscite
-Rhineland was occupied and then demilitarized
-Anschluss with Austria was forbidden
- Military restrictions were placed on Germany. They could have no more than 100,000 soldiers. Were not to have tanks, artillery or submarines. Navy was also restricted.

* had to make reparation payments in the sum of 6,600 million pounds.

* had to accept responsibility for the start of the war through the "war guilt" clause of the treaty

* German reaction was very angry as they viewed these terms as excessively harsh and unfair. The German people felt betrayed. Remember the German people never saw their defeated army or see fighting on German soil.

* however Germany had no choice but to sign or face an invasion by the victorious powers. They had been defeated.

* Germany thought they would not be able to make the reparation payments

* however in many ways Germany was in better shape than other nations after the war. They did not have to rebuild.

* it was the Kaiser and his military leaders that lost the war but the democratic Weimer Republic had to sign the Treaty of Versailles. So they would later be blamed for the unpopular acceptance of this treaty.
What did people get upset about?
Discuss the Natzi rise to power. (Name 3 factors)
-the period after WWI was very difficult in Germany
-there was an influenza epidemic
-jobs were scarce, unrest was common

-also the terms of the treaty of Versailles were very unpopular (lost land, war guilt, reparation payments, etc)
- one extreme party was the communist, the other was the Nazis. Many people joined these parties.

-the Nazis were fascist but they had the added feature of racial superiority attached to it. Hitler was strongly anti-Semitic and saw Jews and many other groups as inferior. Germans were part of what he saw as the master race

-Hitler formed his group of thugs called brown shirts. The brown shirts (or SA) intimated opposition and fought the communists in the streets
- the Enabling Acts
- gave Hitler the power to make laws without
parliament's approval
- parliament went along with it because of the
manufactured crisis and pressure from the Nazis
- Hitler used it to ban Socialists, trade unions and eventually all opposing points of view

-remember that people are more likely to accept radical/ extreme solutions when times are tough
What is totalitarianism?
A centralized government that does not tolerate parties of differing opinion and that exercises dictatorial control over many aspects of life.
total control
What is Nazism?
a form of socialism featuring racism and expansionism and obedience to a strong leader
wants to spread and wants to obey. kind of like a racist hooker.
What is fascism?
-what is Fascism- it is an ideology that would be considered to the extreme right
-ultra nationalistic
-extreme anti-communist
-law and order over individual rights
-strong central government control
-still have private ownership, in fact many of the wealthier classes supported the fascists in Germany and Italy
right, all about their country, no commies please
What is communism?
- An economic or political system based on the sharing of all work and property by the whole community.
time to share everybody! or you die.
What is democracy?
government by the people, exercised either directly or through elected representatives
everyone's opinion is valued
Explain the United State's economic growth in the 20's.
-W.W.I had helped U.S. businesses as they produced massive amounts of material for the war effort
-Europeans buying U.S. goods continued
- tariffs
- taxes were cut and "laissez-faire" was the policy.
- wages rose (about 8%)
- a consumer society developed as factories mass produced radios, cars, etc.
-Optimism was high.
Discuss US society in 20's
- social problems persisted.
- Poverty levels were still high/many
people didn't participate in the boom
- prohibition was enacted in 1919 in order to prevent the sale and consumption of alcohol.
- Illegal things happened cuz of this
- Racism was also a huge problem as hate groups/white supremacists were very active in the 20s.
- the Jim Crow laws created a system of segregation that meant blacks could not use the same buses, hotels, schools, etc. as whites.
- the U.S. congress passed laws in the 20s to stop "undesirables" from immigrating to the US. In particular from southern and eastern Europe
some was pleasant, some not so much
Discuss U.S foreign policy.
* the US emerged from W.W.I an even greater economic power

* despite this they quickly retreated into isolation after W.W.I. In 1920 the US congress rejected the treaty of Versailles and the US did not join the League of Nations (which was Wilson's idea). However they were a huge power and they did involve themselves in some world affairs.
kept to themselves
What are 3 causes of the Great Depression?
* overproduction was already a problem by 1929. At first more food was being produced than could be sold domestically and in Europe. Prices in agriculture fell and some farmers lost their farms.

* Factories were producing more products than there were markets for. Workers were laid off which meant fewer people to buy goods. Also, while wages had gone up these increase were not in proportion to profits which meant less $ to buy goods
tooooo much stuff
Discuss the events of the Depression
* the Wall Street crash on October of 1929 was caused by panic selling. People speculated on the stock market and borrowed money to buy stocks. They purchased stocks on margin which was dependent on stock prices continuing to rises. However the bubble burst on Oct. 24 known as black Thursday. Prices started to fall and people panicked and sold their stocks. Prices collapsed and many people were ruined

* confidence was shattered. Many banks and businesses went under. Millions of dollars were lost including people’s savings.

* extra goods could not be sold because tariffs had gone up in other countries as well. Many of these nations had borrowed significant amounts of money from foreign countries, in particular the US, and could not repay these loans

* The U.S. economy was extensively tied to the world's economy and this became a global depression

* no controls or regulations had been placed on the economy.

* Unemployment reached as high as 25%. Shanty towns called "Hoovervilles" emerged

* the Republican US president Hoover tried to weather the storm but was seen as doing little to try to make things better other than passing the Emergency Relief Act
What was the NEP?
A temporary truce to keep the peasants happy. "The New Economic Policy"
What is War communism?
War Communism was the name given to the economic system that existed in Russia from 1918 to 1921. War Communism was introduced by Lenin to combat the economic problems brought on by the civil war in Russia. It was a combination of emergency measures and socialist dogma.
to combat economic problem