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94 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is:

Hypertension
BP higher than 140/90 on 3 seperate readings several weeks apart.
What is:

Primary (essential) Hypertension
No identified cause.
Only possible risk factors.
What is:

Secondary hypertension
Results from a known cause, such as kidney disease.
What is:

Aneurysm
Weakness and localized dialation of a blood vessel wall. Usually affect aorta and arteries.
What is:

Arteriosclerosis
Common arterial disorder- thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification or arterial walls.
What is:

Atherosclerosis
Form of arteriosclerosis-
arterial walls thicken and harden due to deposits of fat and fibrin.
What is:

Bruit
A harsh or musical sound caused by turbulent blood flow may be heard over large arteries- femoral, abdominal
What is:

Intermittent claudication
Cramping or aching sensation in the calves of the legs or the arch of the foot. Relieved by rest.
What is:

Rest pain
Occurs during periods of inactivity. Gnawing, aching, or burning sensation in the lower legs, feet, toes. Often at night. Increases when legs are elevated and decreases when the legs are dependent- hanging over side of bed.
What is:

Thrombus
Blood clot
What is:

Embolus
Blood clot which breaks away from vessel wall and moves. Can also be fat, bacteria, amniotic fluid or air bubble.
What is:

Buerger's Disease
Occlusive disease of small and medium peripheral arteries. Inflamed, spastic, and thrombotic. Usually a leg or foot.
What is:

Raynaud's Phenomenon
Spasms of the small arteries and arterioles of the extremities. Limits blood flow to fingers, toes, or nose. Almost always women 15-45 yrs.
What is:

Thrombo
clot
What is:

phlebo
Vein
What is:

-itis
Inflammation
What is:

Venous insufficiency
Stasis (stagnation) of venous blood flow in the lower extremities.
What is:

Fibrinolytics
Drugs to dissolve blood clots in the body.
What is:

LMW Heparin
Low molecular weight
Heparin
Given to pt orthopedic and on prolonged bed rest to prevent venous thrombosis.
What is:

Varicose veins
Irregular, tortuous veins with poorly functioning (incompetent) valves.
What is:

Marfan Syndrome
Connective tissue disorder with 3 distinctive features:
1) Long thin extremities, hyperextensibile joints
2) Impaired vision
3) Cardiovascular defects- mitral valve prolapse and weakness of the aorta.
What is:

Common methods to detect Aneurysms
Chest or abdominal x-ray.
Abdominal ultrasound when abdominal aneurysm suspected. CT or MRI measures size.
What is:

Plasma
A clear yellow, protein-rich fluid, and the cells suspended in it: RBC, WBC, Platelets
What is:

erythrocytes
Red Blood Cells (RBC)
What is:

Hemoglobin
Oxygen carrying protein.
What is:

Hemolysis
Process of RBC destruction.
What is:

Leukocytes
White Blood Cells - WBCs
What is:

Platelets
Small fragments of cytoplasm w/o nuclei that contain many granules. Mostly stored in the spleen.
What is:

Hemostasis
Blood clotting.
What is:

Primary function of WBCs
Fight infection
Destroy foreign matter
Eliminate damaged or abnormal cells.
What is:

Anemia
Condition which the Hgb concentration or the number of circulating RBCs is decreased.
What is:

Causes Anemia
Impaired RBC formation or excessive loss or destruction of RBCs.
What is:

Result of anemia
Reduces the oxygen carring capacity of the blood, leading to tissue hypoxia.
What is:

Causes bone pain
Kidneys releaseing increased amts of erythropoietin, stimulating bone marrow, causing bone pain.
What is:

Nutritional anemia
When a lack of necessary nutrients for RBC formation distupts RBD development or Hgb synthesis.
What is:

Iron deficiency anemia
Inadequate supply of iron for RBC formation.
What is:

Most common type of anemia
Iron Deficiency Anemia
What is:

Pernicious Anemia
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia.
What is:

Folic Acid Anemia
Lack of Folic Acid to produce RBCs.
What is:

Thalassemia
Inherited disorder caused by abnormal Hgb synthesis. Common mediterranean, Asian, African descent.
What is:

Aplastic anemia
Bone marrow fails to produce RBCs. Cause usually unknown.
What is:

Polycythemia (erythrocytosis)
Abnormally high RBC count with high Hct. Hct >50% the blood becomes more viscous or 'sticky'.
What is:

Leukemia
Group of malignant disorders of WBCs.
What is:

Multiple Myeloma
Malignancy in which plasma cells multiply uncontrollably and infiltrate bone marrow, lymph nodes, and other tissues.
What is:

Agranulocytosis (neutropenia)
A decrease in granulocytes.
What is:

Thrombocytopenia
Platelet count of less than 100,000. Most common cause abnormal bleeding.
What happens when platelet count is less than 20,000?
Spontaneous bleeding (internal and external)
What is:

Purpura
Hemorrhage into the tissues.
What is:

Ecchymoses
Bruises
What is:

Petechiae
Small, flat, purple, or red spots on the skin or mucous membranes develop on the anterior chest, arms, and neck.
What is:

Epistaxis
Nosebleed
What is:

Menorrhagia
Prolonged and heavy menstrual periods.
What happens in the spleen?
Destruction of platelets and antibody production.
What is:

Hemophilia
Group of hereditary clotting factor deficiencies.
What is:

Lymphadenopathy
Swelling and enlargement of the lymph nodes. Could be from infection, inflammation, or cancers.
What is:

Malignant lymphomas
Cancerous tumors of lymphoid tissue.
What is

Pericardium
Encases the heart and anchors it to surrounding structures.
What is

Parietal pericardium
Outermost layer of the pericardium
What is

Visceral pericardium
Inner layer of the pericardium
What is

Epicardium
The outermost layer of the heart wall.
What is

Myocardium
Heart muscle middle layer.
What is

Endocardium
Innermost layer of the heart which lines the inside of the heart chambers and great vessels.
What is

stroke volume (SV)
A certain volume of blood (appox 70 mL) ejected from the heart with each contraction.
What is

Cardiac output (CO)
Amount of blood pumped by the ventricles in 1 minute.

CO= HR X SV avg 4-8 L/min
What is

Contractility
The natural abilityof the cardiac muscle fibers to shorten during systole.
What is

Peripheral Vascular Resistance (PVR)
Force opposing blood flow.
1) Blood viscosity
2) Vessel length
3) Vessel diameter
What is

Blood Pressure (BP)
The force exerted by blood against the walls of the arteries.
What is

Systolic pressure
Force exerted as the heart contracts (systole).
What is

Diastolic pressure
The force exerted when the heart is filling (diastole).
What is

Electrocardiogram (ECG)
A record of the heart's electrical activity.
What is

Coronary heart disease (CHD)
Coronary Artery disease (CAD)
What is

Atherosclerosis
Lesions called atheromas (plaque) develo in the lining of medium and large arteries.
What is

ischemic
Without enough blood and oxygen to meet metabolic needs.
What is

Angina pectoris
Chest pain that occurs when there is a temporary imbalance between myocardial blood supply and demand.
What is

Acute Myocardial infarction
(AMI or MI)
Cells in an area of cardiac muscle necrose (die) due to lack of blood and oxygen.
(Heart attack)
What is

cardiogenic shock
when more than 40% of the left ventricle is infarcted.
What is

Cardiac dysrhythmia
Disturbance or irregularity in the electrical system of the heart.
What is

Sinus Bradycardia
HR less than 60 bpm
What is

cardia arrest
Medical emergency following V-fib in which the ventricles quiver and stop contracting; the heart does not pump. Death in 4 min if not terminated and return to perfusing rhythm.
What is

Cardioversion
(Defibrillation)
Use of electric shock to stop abnormal heart rhythm and start normal one again.
What is

Heart failure
Inability of the heart to function as a pump to meet the needs of the body.
What is

Orthopnea
Breathing difficulty while lying down.
What is

Acute pulmonary edema
Accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces and alveoli of the lungs.
What is

Inotropic medications
Meciations that increase the strenght of the heart's contractions.
What is

Narrow therapeutic Index
Therapeutic levels of a drug are very close to toxic levels.
What is

Valve stenosis
The valve leaflets fuse, obstructing forward blood flow.
What is

Valve regurgitation
The valve fails to close properly, allowing blood to flow back through it.
What is

Endocarditis
Inflammation of the endocardium. (interior of the heart)
What is

Myocarditis
Inflamatory disorder of the heart muscle that may be caused by infection, immune response, radiation, chemical poisons, drugs, or burns.
What is

Pericarditis
Inflammation of the pericardium. (outermost layer of the heart)
What is

Pericardial friction rub
Leathery, grating sound produced by the inflamed pericardial layers rubbing against the chest wall or pleura.
What is

Cardiac Tamponade
Compression of the heart by rapid buildup of percardial fluid interfering with mayocardial function.
What is

Valvular heart disease
Interferes with blood flow to and from the heart.
What is

Cardiomyopathy
Affets the structure and function of the heart muscle.