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12 Cards in this Set

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Placebo
fake treatment or no treatment
Observational Study
A study where researchers observe individuals and record info of interest. (sample studies are observational)
Experiment
a study where researchers impose treatments and measure responses of individuals.
Definitions
Population : entire group of individuals about which the researcher wants info
Variable: Characteristic measured in the sample.
Sample: part of population that is measured.
(missin some definitions here)
Non-Probability Sample
A sample chosen using personal judgement to determine which individuals are in sample or not.Probability of having an individual in sample is not available.(This is bad sampling)
Examples:
Convenience Sample
Voluntary Response Sample
Mall-Intercept Sample
Quota Sample
Def of non-probability samples
Convenience : as said
Mall-Interecept: relevant questions to subjects and for which answers can be generalized.
Voluntary Response: subjects respond themselves
Quota Sample: interviewers select individuals themselves.
Probability Sample
sample chosen to use some random device that gives each member a chance of being selected. Probability can be computed.
Examples:
SRS, Multi-stage, stratified.
SRS Explanation
SRS: every possible SAMPLE has equal chance of selection.
Use computer generated software or random digit table or some valid device.
Random Digit Table
1. Each digit in table has same probability.
2. Knowledge of one part of table gives no info of other part.
STEP #1 Subjects assigned numbers
STEP # 2 Select a line from the Table for each member.
STEP # 3 All no. larger than Population size are eliminated.
STEP # 4 Repeated numbers are deleted
STEP # 5 Start from step # 1 until you have desired sample size to investigate
Stratified Sample
1. Classify individuals into groups (strata)
2. Choose Probability Sample within each stratum
3. Combine samples from strata to form a complete sample.
Multi-Stage Sample
For three stage sampling:
#1 probability sample of groups is selected
#2 probability of sample of sub-groups is taken from each selected group
# 3 units are sampled from within each selected sub-group.
Further study on multi-stage
1. When you increase stages in multi-stages you are increasing the number of times you will sample in each group.
2. Diff b/w multi-stage and stratified sample is that in stratified you would sample from every group. But in multi-stage you select certain groups and then sample from them. In every stage in multi-stage we "sample diff things in each stage."