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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Utilitarian
Using leisure for social good
constraints
something that limits or is a barrier to leisure participation
3 Types of leisure constraints
Intrapersonal-individual psychological qualities

Interpersonal-Barriers from social interactions with friends, family-ex.you want to go for a hike but dont like to hike alone, therfore you cannot go hiking

Structural- Social/economic/political barriers ex.lack of time or money
Leisure can be a powerful force or a structural barrier by systematically excluding certain groups
-offering mens sport oppurtunities
-offering no teen leisure oppurtunities
-providing no access or services to people with disabilities
-providing signage and park information only in english
Time
-our time is victimized by cultural factors
time urgency
feeling rushed
time deepening
multi-tasking

-attempting to speed up a given activity
-substituting a leisure activity that takes longer time for one that can be done more quickly
-doing more then one activity at a time
-undertaking a leisure activity with more precise regard to time
--This results in
-never experiencing anything fully
-avoiding leisure activiites that require a long time to learn a skill
-increased stress
time (temporal) displacement
changing when one visits
equity
-freedom from bias or favorism
-there is not yet equity in leisure but leisure has a great potential to become an equalizer
-leisure constraints on all in society; men, women, minorities, disabled, and homosexuals
standard of living
-the economic, social, and psychological level which an individual or family lives
-quality and quanity of goods and services available to people
Conservation
is using it wisely:forest services
preservations
is protecting it:national parks
John Muir
a preservationist who founded the sierra club
Stress
-over 75% of all visits to PCP's are for stress related problems
-62% of employees routinely report work related neck pain, 34% report difficulty sleeping
-The # of employees calling in sick has tripled from 1996-2000
-Workers who must take time off because of stress, anxiety or a related disorder will be off the job for about 20 days
melting pot
-a metaphor in which societies today have developed
-immigrants from all over have come together bringing all of their cultures and ideas into one big pot, that eventually all melts together
Consumption
All household purchases of goods and services
-much consumption falls under basic needs(food, shelter, clothes, transportation, electricity, water, sewer)
-In developed Countries, expedentures on leisure has developed into an important sector of the economy
Geoff Godbey
Criticizes consumerism for more than its damage to happiness and the spirit of leisure
Conserver leisure idea
asks if there is another way to enjoy leisure without making heavy demands upon the environment and material resources
-is a matter of doing rather then having
Americans Have...
41 "leisure" hours a week
Leisure expenditures account for about...
$1 in every $8 spent by the American consumer
Total leisure related expenditures are over...
$1 trillion per year
Most leisure expenditures occur....
in the private sector
Inclusion
The involvement and full acceptance of persons with special needs into a wide range of community setting
In the 1990's...
leisure and therapeutic recreation providers focused on inclusion and diversity
Diversity
Recognition and celebration of differences within a unifying context
Affluenza
The addiction of consuming
New Deal
-The federally sponsored programs to provide jobs and stimulate economic recovery
-Created by President Roosevelt
-New Deal programs built concert halls and community theatres, developed outdoor recreation areas and camps, and helped establish state park systems
Big Raid
-Raids on forests, land, minerals, and wildlife
-Loggers are shown proudly sitting on a tree that they chopped down
-Life and limb were still intact in the ever dangerous woods
Disability
A form of physical or mental impairment that may limit ability to participate in some of life's activities
-We are all temporarily able-bodied
-43,000,000 Americans live with some form of disability
-Common disabilities include motor, visual, and hearing impaired-also psychological, behavioral, and learning disorders
People with disabilities
self-determination:
-being able to make choices for themselves
Self-advocacy
-their own voice in leisure; we all have the right to choose and make our own decisions
-Normalization-oppurtunities should be equal and similar
-Integration-Entitled to the same respect and attention as others
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990...
helped the disabled attain more leisure oppurtunities= equity!!
Gross National Happiness
Based on the premise that true development of human society takes place when material and spiritual development occur side by side to complement and reinforce eachother
-Promotion of equitable and sustainable socio-economic development
-Preservation and promotion of cultural values
-conservation of the natural environment
-establish of good goverance
Integration
-enabling persons with and without disabilities to participate together
---social acceptance
---social interaction
*based on the idea of integrity; to be yourself among others
The Lost Boys
-From Sudan
-Now located throughout the US
-They were seperated from their parents while out herding cattle one day
-Their sudanese villages were attacked but the boys were able to get away
-They walked for thousands and thousands of miles, while many of them died
The Settlement House Movement
-a community center that provided various community services (focus on youth and women)
-Beggining of non-profit community based social services (charitable and missions drivers)
-Houses helped to improve lives of city neighborhoods especially for foreign born, taught skills to create productive lives
Jane Addams
-she and ellen star founded the Hull House in Chicago-1889
-One of the earliest settlement houses
cultural capital
-personal resources that are useful for achieving competence in a society's high status culture
ex.helping one suceed in a society
social capital
features of community life, such as interpersonal networks, volunteering and participation in self-governance
-ex.building community
Leisure's Contributions to the econonmy
-economics- how people use scarce resources in an attempt to satisfy needs and wants; the study of economic systems and behavior
-The precense of leisure facilities and programs attract business/industries to particular locates.
--contributes to quality of life for residents and citizens
--employment oppurtunities
--property value
--contributes to tax base
Tragedy of the Commons
-Imagine a shared pasture. If you add a sheep, the benefit is yours, but the cost is shared. Carrying capacity is exceeded. Sheep destroy pasture.
-Individuals each act in their own best interest but the collective result is negative
-We now protect parks because of this
Theories of leisure participation by different ethnic groups
Marginality Thesis- A function of economic and social factors creating a lack of oppurtunity

Ethnicity Thesis- Culturally/ ethnic based value systems, norms, and socialization patterns that limit or influence participation

Discrimination Thesis- An ethnic/racial group feels discriminated against/uncomfortable in certain settings
Barriers to leisure participation
-Sevreal Groups
---Women
-----Women experience inequity in leisure: Less time, less priority, and less quality
-----combine rold obligations with leisure
-----More likely to occur in the home and be unstructured
-----women do not feel entitled (especially homemakers)
**women have the most fragmented leisure time

-Gays and Lesbians
---quiet discrimination and complex issue
---little programming or attention to leisure needs in a public sector
---boyscouts of america-refuses membership
---Niche service markets exists primarily in private sectors (nightclubs, resorts, etc.)

-Racial and ethnic minorities
-Immigrants
-People with disabilities
Political reform movements
*response to growing urban problems
-the temperance movement(anti-drinking, gambling, and prostitution)
-The abolitionist movement(anti-slavery)
-Public school movement (pro-literacy and education)
-Labor movement(improve working conditions, child labor)
-Womens suffrage Movement (voting for women)
Social and Cultural Time
-each culture has its own time
-how late is too late?
-the more industrial a country, the more reliance on a linear notion of time
-As a genreal welfare increases, life becomes more hectic and more time scarce
* cultures have either
-1. TIme surplus:more free time, poor in wealth, low production, numerous holidays, spotanaeity etc.
2. Time scarcity: little free time, rich in wealth, high production, work dependent on mechanical time, stress, few holidays etc.
Biological Time
-an organisms internal awarness of time
-TIme is the rhythm of the living organism
-How does Las Vegas go against biological time??
**no clocks
**no windows
**lots of windows
**one menu
**pump in oxygen
Mechanical Time
-linear/measurable
*set to the rythm of a machine
*time is the future too
*Tied to the efficiency and to the work ethic
*artificial distinctions of time
*implications
Cyclical Time
-Natural/pre-modern
-Constant and returning
-real time is here and now
-Patterns of nature
*Sunrise, sunset
*tides
*season
-Implications
*Egyptian clocks-3500 BC
*Sun Temple-1250 AD
*Huygens Pendelum Clock
Satisfactions of Work
-creating something
-using skill
-working whole heartedly
-Using initiative and responsibility-freedom
-social contact
Dissatisfactions of Work
-repetitive job
-making only a small part of something
-doing useless tasks/underemployed
-feeling a sense of insecurity
-being to closely supervised
History of Work
The expenditure of effort to produce something
-early christians and monks: work was for serving God, for contemplating, for meditating, for surviving
-Reformation/Protestant:work was an end in itself, a calling
--Work ethic: Work became a central part in one's identity between 1600-1700's
History of parks
-The synergy of Central park was transformed into the National Park Movement in the late 1800's and early 1900's
-By 1900, 750 cities had parks
-Upper income families from the East Coast began to travel to Adirondacks and other forested lake areas
-The railroad provided a new transportation corridor
-protection of national parks
Changing American Demographics
-urbanization and suburban sprawl
-Creation and maintnence of good relationships
-Juvenile Deliquency
-Inter-group relations
Playground Movement
-The Boston Sand Gardens
--First supervised playground for children
--Built in 1885 by the Boston Women's Club
--First attempt to provide formalized leisure for children
*Joseph Lee was the father of the playground movement
*Luther Gulick:YMCA and Campfire Girls
Aristotle's Theory of Leisure
Believed that leisure activities were performed for their own sake. Leisure was the freedom from having to be occupied and was the necessary condition for happiness.
work ethic
set of values based on the moral virtues of hard work and diligence
Melting Pot
-A metaphor in which societies today have developed
-Immigrants from all over have come together bringing all og their cultures and ideas into one big pot, that eventually all melts together
Feminism
-Philosophy that women should have economic, political, and social equality with men.
-Based on equal choice, freedom, and oppurtunity for women
Immigrants
-Autonomous
ex.amish, jewish, mormons
-voluntary immigrant
ex.cubans, haitans, and mexicans
Involuntary non-immigrant
ex. African Americans, Native American, Native Alaskans, and Native Hawaiians
Capitalism
-An economic system based upon private ownership of business enterprises that produce goods and services
-Individualism will lead to economic progress
Adam Smith
Father of capitalism
-an inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776)
--self-interest is the prime motivations
--individual striving leads to common good (collective benefits)
--No regulation of the economy is best (free trade)
--capitalism is guided by "an invisible hand" (self-regulating economy)
Adam Smith's Principles
CONVENTIONAL WISDOM: capitalism is the enemy or obstruction of leisure because of its tendency to expand work
**The more leisure, the less progress, the more progress the less leisure-Adam Smith

Contemporary Wisdom-capitalism is good for leisure because it has productivity as its main function and has created more leisure for people and a leisure commerce sector of the economy
Human Development Index
-Life Expectancy
-Adult Literacy

-Per capita Gross Domestic Product: The value of all goods and services produced domestically
-The most livable countries in 2006
-#1 Norway
-The US is number 8