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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Smith-Hughes Act of 1917
funded secondary ag, trade and industry and home ec programs
Vocational Education Act of 1963

First narrowly focused and $$ at post-secondary level

Does not transfer to higher level education
supported occupational prep below BA level
intended to serve all students
Vocational Education Amendments of 1998

HS and CC course articulation
expanded fed's role
emphasized professional development
course articulation with HS
increased support for post-secondary programs
student outcomes not program outcomes
Federal Education Amendments of 1976

Tracking students outside of the transfer mission
programs overcoming gender discrimination & stereotyping
focus on HS dropouts, unemployed, and incumbent workers
vocational ed for handicapped and ESL
National Vocational Education System
Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Act of 1984
Tech prep programs
Course articulation
accountability and student outcomes
training for disadvantaged (special needs) students
Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Act Amendments of 1990 (Perkins II)
largest fed funding to HS
increased attention to academic and tech skills
funding favor disadvantaged students
increase accountability esp student academic achievement
Grubb et al (1996)
Workforce Preparation and Development
Tech prep and school to work
Job training and skill development
Bragg (2001)
New Vocationalism

Career pathways/clusters
transferable skills (healthcare, business, technology)
sequential core curriculum to transition from HS to post-secondary
Constructivist theories - active teaching and learning, learner centered, project-based instruction
W. Norton Grubb (1998)
Benefits of New Vocationalism
1. Complete Assoc degree
2. Large gains experienced by minorities
Founding of AAJC
Periods of CC Development in 20th Century
1900-1920 Formative Period
1920-1945 Developmental Period
1945-1970 Take Off
1970-present Great Transformation
(Brint and Karabel, 1989: The Diverted Dream)
Generations of CC Development in the 20th Century
1900-1930 Generation 1 (extension of high school)
1930-1950 Generation 2 (junior college)
1950-1970 Generation 3 (CC)
1970-1985 Generation 4 (Comprehensive CC)
1985 - present ????
Deegan & Tillery
Leaders of the Developmental Period
Leonard Koos
Walter Crosby Eells
Doak S. Campbell
1900-1940 Early Growth Period What influenced the Growth?
more HS Grads
university advocacy & sponsorship
lack of higher ed options
support for vocational ed
Ideals of American Education
lead to upward mobility
create social efficiency
relieve social ills
enhance individual achievement
improve the economy
Illinois General Assembly recognizes/legalizes JC
Illinois Association of Junior Colleges as lobbying agency
The time when JC viewed as post-secondary as opposed to secondary as previously viewed.
Late 1950s
Illinois State Funding approved
Greater state control because of duplication and competition
JC --> CC

Early 1960s
Junior College Act passed and signed by Otto Kerner for capital building
Major impact to CC
ADN Program
Dougherty (1994)

The Contradictory College:
Functional Advocates
Functional Advocates - democratizing access
Cohen and Brawer
Dougherty (1994)

The Contradictory College:
Instsrumentalists Marxist Critics
Instrumentalists Marxist Critics - inequalities created by capitalist elite

Dougherty (1994)

The Contradictory College:
Institutionalist Critics
Institutionalist Critics - hamper attainment of bachelors

Brint and Karabel
Dougherty (1994)

The Contradictory College:
Functionalist Advocates
Functionalist Advocates - democratic demands students and parents
Dougherty (1994)

The Contradictory College:
Marxist Instrumentalist Critics
Marxist Instrumentalist Critics - capitalist view keep universities select
Dougherty (1994)

The Contradictory College:
Institutional Critics
Institutional Critics - university attended by only wealthy, best students

Brint Lange
Karabel Jordan
Dougherty (1994)

The Contradictory College:
The State Relative Autonomy Perspective
The State Relative Autonomy Perspective - promoters of CC

Functionalists - students/parents
Instrumentalist Marxists - business
Institutuionalists - State Univ
Dougherty (1991) The CC at a Crossroads.
A need for reform.
Because students are obtaining bachelor degrees
CC--> 4 yr institution
CC--> branch of universities
Dougherty (1991)

The Baccalaureate Gap
Three reasons for Baccalaureate Gap
1. surviving CC
2. transferring to 4 yr
3. persisting in 4 yr
Dougherty (1991)

Reformers recommendations
1. CC--> 4 yr
2. CC--> branch of 4 yr
Founding of AAJC
Truman Commission Report
Need for access
Women and minorities
Veterans and Soldiers
Importance of Gen Ed
Define state and local control
Financial aid
Clark (1960) Cooling Out Function in Higher Ed
Dissociation between aspirations and avenues in education.
Inconsistency between achievement and realities of limited opportunity.
Clark (1960) Cooling Out
never dismiss just redirect

lets the student down gently and unexplosively.
Clark (1960) Cooling Out Features
1. Alternative Achievement
2. Gradual disengagement
3. Objective Denial
4. Agents of consolation
5. Avoidance of Standards
Clark (1980) Cooling Out Revisited
Clark suggests
1 open door admission (nonselection)
2. those who can be successful in university should attend university
3. deny some aspirants the transfer option and now what
Clark (1980) Cooling Out Revisited
Six Alternatives
1. preselection
2. transfer track selection
3. open failure
4. guaranteed graduation
5. reduction of transfer-terminal distinction
6. move problem to another type of college
What Karabel (1972) says about CC.
way to maintain low income minorities because that's where they go to school

academic standards block upward mobility
What Zwerling says about CC.
maintains social stratification
CC is one more barrier between poor and middle class
Clark Kerr
Carnegie Commission
Author of the CA Master Plan
Believes there is a need to sort to maintain high research standards and quality
Carnegie Commission
Edmund Gleazer (1980)
The Community College: Values, Vision & Vitality
Community College difficult to define due to changing roles
Dale Parnell ( )

The Neglected Majority
The Father of Tech Prep