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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Popliteal fossa boundaries
Semimembranosus
Semitendinosus
Gastrocnemius medial head
Gastrocnemius lateral head
Biceps femoris
What drains the medial side of the foot and leg?
Great saphenous v.
Depth of the structures: nerve, artery and v. in the popliteal fossa?
related to each other
Popliteal a. deepest
Vein is Intermediate
Nerve is most superficial
What drains the lateral leg?
small saphenous vein
What passes through the cuboid bone groove?
Flexor longus tendon?
Nerves that branch off of the Sciatic n. in the popliteal fossa?
Tibial n.
Peroneal n. (common fibular n.)
...
Anterior compartment of the leg
innervation
deep fibular n.
Posterior compartment of the leg
innervation
Tibial n.
Posterolateral surface of skin in posterior leg
Innervation
sural n. and lateral sural cutaneous n.
what does dynamic stability of the arch of the foot
the fibularis longus
Innervation of Lateral leg?
Peroneal n.
AKA - Superficial fibular n.
What are the retinacula restricting the fibularis longus and brevis?
Superior fibular retinacula
inferior fibular retinacula
Most common Nerve in leg that is injured?
What does it innervate?
Common Fibular Nerve (peroneal)
deep - Anterior compartment and wedge between 1st and 2nd digit on skin
Blood supply to the leg
lateral compartment of the leg receives its blood supply from the perforating branches of the posterior tibial artery proximally, and by perforating branches of the fibular (peroneal) artery distally.
Fibular a. branches from the tibial a.
Anterior Leg Muscles
name
action
Blood supply
innervation
Tibialis anterior dorsiflexes and inverts the foot

Extensor hallucis longus extends the great toe

Extensor digitorum longus extends the lateral 4 digits

Fibularis (peroneus) tertius aids in eversion & dorsiflexion of foot

Blood supply is from the anterior tibial artery

All are innervated by the deep fibular nerve and all dorsiflex the foot at the ankle
What restrains the tendons in the anterior compartment of leg
Extensor retinacula
Where does the anterior tibial a. come from? passes through what?
Comes from the popliteal a.
passes through interosseous membrane
what does the ant. tibial a. become in the foot?
The anterior tibial artery becomes the dorsalis pedis artery, which passes between the 1st & 2nd metatarsal bones into the plantar surface of the foot.
What is lost with a common nerve injury to the lower limb?
The nerve is the fibular n. injury
There is an inability to dorsiflex and evert the foot
Steppage Gait - flex hip and knee joint while walking
Muscles of anterior compartment
innervation
Tibialis anterior -strongest dorsiflexor and inverter of the foot
Extensor digitorum longus
Extensor hallucis longus
Fibularis tertius

All innervated by deep fibular nerve
Where does the lateral sural cutaneous nerve end?
Lateral sural cutaneous n.
ends more proximally and laterally
Superficial posterior leg muscles?
innervation
Gastrocnemius muscle (medial and lateral heads) arise from the posterior superior surface of the femoral condyles

Soleus arises from the tibia (soleal line) and fibula

Plantaris arises from the lateral supracondylar line

The 3 muscles attach to the posterior surface of the calcaneus via the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon and they plantar flex the foot at the ankle.
Gastrocnemius and plantaris also flex the knee.
Deep posterior Compartment
Muscles
Flexor digitorum longus
Tibialis posterior
Flexor hallucis longus
Popliteus
Popliteus muscle - action and location
The popliteus muscle weakly flexes the knee, but its more important action on the knee is to “unlock” the knee. When the foot is firmly on the ground, it unlocks the leg by rotating the femur laterally on the fixed tibia
in contrast when the femur is fixed, the muscle unlocks knee by rotating the tibia medially on the femur

Floor of popliteal fossa
hallicus
Great toe - big toe
Flexor digitorum longus
Location
Innervation
Action
add other muscles of deep posterior compartment
Flexor hallicus longus tendon transverses what? Is it deep or superficial to tendon of the flexor digitorum longus
Traverses the groove of talus
groove of calcaneus bone
FHL - deep to FDL
Posterior most tendon in the foot?
Flexor Hallicus longus
Atherosclerosis of the leg
Symptoms
Arterial occlusive disease caused by atherosclerosis can cause

aching and cramping pain in the calves during exertion (walking and running)

pain relieved by rest and is termed intermittent claudication

ischemia and hypoxia for demanding muscle

AKA - Peripheral vascular disease
Varicose veins -
cause
outcome
More common in men or women?
Incompetent valves can lead to varicose veins

Incompetent valves put more pressure on distal valves and can cause them to fail.

This leads to the superficial veins becoming dilated and tortuous

This condition is more common in women then men and is often made worse during pregnancy