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23 Cards in this Set

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Retrieval Cue
Can be info in a sensory store or STS that automatically makes contact with matching info in LTS
-Any time info is generated in STS or enters a sensory store, that info acts as a retrieval cue
-It will arouse matching info in LTS which, if sufficiently aroused, will become consciously available to person
Factors that Effect Retrieval Cue's Effectivenss
(1)- Match of Cue Trace
The extent to which the info in the cue matches the info in the memory trace
--The more the info in the cue matches the info in the target trace, the more likely the retrieval will be successfull
State Dependent Remembering
Memory is better when a person is in the same physiological state at both the time of learning and retrieval
Factors that Effect Retrieval Cue's Effectiveness
The number of memories in LTS that match
--The more memory traces there are in LTS that match the cue, the more difficult it will be to activate any 1 of them
Cue Overload
Involves a retrieval cue causing forgetting by matching too much competing info in memory
Proactive Interference
Retroactive Interference
Factors that Effect Retrieval Cue's Effectiveness
The number of memories a cue has already retrieved
--The more memories a cue has already retrieved the harder it will be to retrieve additional memories
(eg) Trying to retrieve name of old friend & mistakenly retrieve wrong name-Even though you know names wrong, you'll have harder time retrieving correct name
BROWN- When extraneous word was related but incorrect, the %correct decreased, RT increased - (Output Interference)
3 Factors Effects
Anderson & Pichert
-passage read - some subjects told to listen from perspective of burglar
-Subjects asked to write down as much of story as remembered--Then asked to recall again but from perspective of homebuyer--Increased ability to recall info that had not been previously remembered
--Remembered more info after perspective shift--
3 Factors Effects
Craik & Birtwistle
-read & immediately free recall 5 lists of 15 words each
-Each list had words from same conceptual cateogory--Recalled fewer words on each successive list
--As more lists were memorized, retrieval cue matched more & more words & became more overloaded & less effective
Experimental Condition:
-last list was from different conceptual category-Recall of last list rebounded to level of 1st list--Use of retrieval cue that is not overloaded
3 Factors Effects
-list of 49 words-7 words from 7 categories-Use category name to recall words from that category
-The later in the recall period a cateogy cue was provided, the fewer words they could recall
-Act of recalling info from study interfered with ability to recall additional words from list-->
Output Interference-3rd retrieval factor-A cue is becoming less effective the more it is used
Short Term Store
Equivalent to Consciousness
-Anything that a person is conscious of should therefore be in the STS
-Info can enter consciousness by being sufficiently activated in LTS
Revised Model of Memory
Because of close connection between Sensory Store & LTS and LTS & STS
STS is activated subset of info in LTS
-STS contains same info in LTS only an aroused form
(a)Info-visual, auditory...
Capacity of Short Term Store
Serial Position Curve to measure capacity
-performance in asymptote(middle) reflects info retrieved just from LTS
-Recency (last) Region represents info from both STS and LTS
Capacity of STS-subtracting memory performance based on asymptote from that based on recency region = 2 items
Difficulty--Negative Recency
Negative Recency Effect
When free recall is delayed so that memory is based entirely on retrieval from LTS, memory for the last few words is unusually low
Capacity of STS = 2-3 familiar units
Units for Measuring Capacity of STS
CHUNKS-A unified representation in memory that results when a series of individual components have become associated together
-Can be formed when we repeatedly encounter a series of stimuli in close succession
Glanzer & Razel (chunks)
Chunks were appropriate unit for measuring STS capacity
-Presented 15 familiar proverbs-Using recency effect found that STS Capacity=2.2 proverbs
2 Fates of Info in STS
(1)Decay-when you stop paying attention to something its activation level decays in the LTS so you stop being conscious of it
(2)Displacement-new info bumps out existing info in consciousness
Evidence for Displacement
-12 word lists-free recall
-Just before recall,2 or 6 distracter words were presented at 2 or 6sec rate
--# of words is more important than rate of presentation--Displacement is more important then decay
Selective Attention & Schizophrenia
Helps protect us from having contents of STS displaced by new info
-Schizophrenics are highly susceptible to displacement
-Distraction had small effect on pre-recency effect-Had Detrimental Effect on Schizophrenia
Info will stay in STS until:
(a)Stop paying attention to it so its level of activation decays
(b)Encounters 2 or 3 other stimuli that displace the info
Short Term Memory vs. Short Term Store
Short Term Memory is a strategy--Use it when we're trying to keep as much info as possible in a highly available state
-Not as fixed or rigid--More Flexible
Characteristics of Short Term Memory
Uses both short term store & long term store
-Proactive interference is LTS phenomenon so we know LTS is involved
STM Rehearsal - 2 Forms
Start learning rehearsal at 8yrs
(1)Maintenance--Involves rote repetition-Doesn't improve persons ability to recall info the longer its rehearsed-Primarily used with STM Task
(2)Elaborative--Attends to meaning of stimulus-More active and effortful than maintenance-Benefits Long Term memory
STM Capacity
Affected by age, practice with a test, and type of test
DIGIT SPAN--7-Varies with age
CAPACITY--7 + or - 2
-Any technique that allows a person to increase the size of their chunks will raise digit span