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75 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Natural Immunity is nonspecific. What three things are part of the nonspecific host defense mechanisms?
Phagocytes
Chemicals
Physical barriers
Normal Flora prevents pathogens from colonizing by producing ____ toxic to other bacteria.
bacteriocins
Normal flora prevent pathogens from colonizing by providing competition for ____ and _____.
nutrients and attachment sites
normal flora prevent pathogens from colonizing by creating an unfriendly environment. (secreting ____, ____).
acids
fatty acids
Normal Flora is present on body without causing disease. It prevents pathogens from colonizing by what three things?
- producing bacteriocins toxic to other bacteria
- providing competition for nutrients and attachment sites
- creating an unfriendly environment (secreting acids, fatty acids)
Skin. ____ and _____ provide a physical barrier to microorganisms.
epidermis and dermis
Although the epidermis and dermis provide a physical barrier to microorganims, ____ and ____ are natural portals of entry for pathogens.
hair follicles and glands
Name a pathogen that pushes itself through natural portals of entry (hair follicles and glands).
Treponema pallidum (a spirochete) causes syphilis, an STD
Skin is tough, dry (no water, no life), ___, ____, ____, covered with normal flora.
salty
oily
low in nutrients
Microorganims can be ____ with epidermis
shed
Name a protein in the skin.
Keratin
Keratin (protein in skin) is a poor source of _____
carbon
Name three things that are naturally antimicrobial.
- fatty acids
- acids
- sweat
________ makes antimicrobial fatty acids with lipase
Propionibacterium acnes
Propionibacterium acnes makes antimicrobial fatty acids with _____
lipase
_____ ferment to produce acidic environment
Staphylococci
Staphylocci ferment to produce ____ environment.
acidic
Disease is more likely to occur if skin barrier is _____.
broken
ex: surgery, puncture wounds, bites, injections, etc.
Respiratory System. Airflow turbulent-microbes get stuck on ______
mucosal surfaces
______ beat towards the pharynx (up the mucosal escalator).
cilia
Microbes sent up to mouth/nose, expelled by coughing or sneezing, or combined with _____ and sent to _____.
saliva
stomach
____ destroys mucosal cells, disrupts action of the mucosal escalator.
Smoking
Mucous is full of ____, an enzyme that can break down peptidoglycan (a good thing).
lysozyme
Mucous is full of lysozyme, an enzyme that can break down ____
peptidoglycan
Besides mucous, lysozyme can also be found in ______
lacrimal fluid (tears). This acts to protect eyes.
If bacteria doesn't get sneezed or coughed out, it goes to the gastrointestinal tract. Stomach acid has a pH of ____ and is a natural barrier to pathogens.
pH 2
Stomach acid kills most everything, except ____ and _____, ______, ______
Typhoid and tubercle bacilli

protozoal cysts

certain viruses, Helicobacter pylori (causes stomach ulcers, can make environment a lower pH)
Name a virus that stomach acid can't kill.
Helicobacter pylori
Bile enters GI tract at _____
duodenum
GI tract is inhibitory to most microorganisms. Also duodenal enzymes will digest all the ____ and _____ components of microorganisms (proteins, carbohydrates, fats).
structural
metabolic
Name a pathogen that can get into your gastrointestinal tract. hint: it forms cysts.
Giardia- a protozoan that forms cysts. Beavers poop it out into cold water. You drink water w/ cyst. It goes into stomach, then intestines. Cyst will become vegetative form. TROPHOZOITE form suckers. get diarrhea. lasts for 40 days.
GENITOURINARY TRACT. Flow of urine prevents microbes from reaching ____ or _____
kidneys
bladder
Women get more bladder infections than men because?
women have shorter urethra.
pH of vaginal tract is kept low by _____ producing lactic/acetic acid as a result of glycogen fermentation.
Lactobacillus.
pH of vaginal tract ketp low by Lactobacillus producing lactic/acetic acid as a result of _____
glycogen fermentation
In ______ or _____ women, vaginal flora similar to adjacent skin.
pre-pubescent
post-menopausal
During child-bearing years, estrogen levels rise causing vaginal epithelial cells to secrete ____.
glycogen
Interferons stimulates production of _____ that interfere with viral reproduction in neighboring cells
antiviral proteins (AVPs)
Phagocytes include _____, ____(neutrophils, eosinophils)
macrophages
PMN cells (polymorphonuclear)
PMN cells inclue ____ and ____
neutrophils and eosinophils
____ and _____ work together to confine pathogens to site of entry and fix damaged tissue
phagocytosis
inflammation
opsonin
protein found on bacterium that enhances phagocytosis
_____ is a response to injury (chemical, physical, or living organism)
inflammation
What are three types of injury?
chemical
physical
living organism
What are four signs of inflammation?
rubor
calor
dolor
tumor
Rubor
redness
Calor
heat
Dolor
pain
tumor
swelling
injured cells release ____
chemicals
_____, _____ respond to chemical signals such as _____ and arrive at site to begin phagocytosis
neutrophils
macrophages
histamine
_____ forms around pus.
fibrin walls
Pus is composed of ____, _____, _____, _____
plasma, tissue cells, dead bacteria, leukocytes
______ develop from fibrin enclosing pus
abscesses
abscesses develop from fibrin enclosing pus (becomes a _____ if big)
carbuncle
Describe the process of inflammation.
sunburn or mechanical injury introduces bacteria --> vasodilation (capillary walls open [dilate], releasing plasma) --> phagocytosis by neutrophils and macrophages --> fibrin walls form around pus --> abscesses develop from fibrin enclosing pus --> form a walled off site of injury
Name a chemical messenger that causes vasodilation
histamine
Fever is an abnormally _____.
high temperature

Baby- if go over 100oF, not good.
Child- if go over 102oF, not good.
if 104, 105, must cool the person down quickly
Phagocytes engulfing parasites produce ____ such as ______ or _____
cytokines (chemical messenger)
interleukin-1
endotoxins
Phagocytes engulfing parasites produce cytokines such as interleukin-1 or endotoxins. These _____ (fever-inducers) travel in the blood to hypothalamus. What does the hypothalamus do?
pyrogens

hypothalamus raises body temperature
Fever results in ____ of blood vessels and an increase in overall ______
constriction
cell metabolism
Fever results in ____, ____
cold skin
chills and fever
Fever results in ______ of growth of certain microorganisms.
inhibition
fever results in more _____ repair and phagocytosis
tissue
Fever results in reduced blood borne ____ needed by parasites
iron
Fever results in what 5 things?
- Constriction of blood vessels and an increase in overall cell metabolism
- cold skin, chills and fever
- inhibition of growth of certain microorganisms
- more tissue reapir and phagocytosis
- reduced blood borne iron needed by parasites
Natural Killer Cells are like _____
roaming assassins
Natural Killer Cells picks out 'hits' by checking for _____
class I MHC (major histocompatibility complex proteins)

- Natural Killer cell surface receptor forms complex with class I MHC found on most cells
If no MHC or in reduced quantitites (as in cancer cells or virus-infected cells), Natural killer cells ____.
kill
Complement System is a series of ____
proteins
Complement System is a series of proteins. Proteins which act in a cascade (___ activates the others) to ____, _____ and _____ microorganisms.
C3
bind, coat, and destroy

*complement system is like a dogpile
Complement System is activated to _____
destroy bacteria
Give one example as to how the complement system works.
- Phagocytes release IL-6 after eating bacteria
- IL-6 stimulates production of lectin protein- binds mannose on bacterial capsule
- mannose is present on microbial cell walls, but not mammalian cell walls
- lectin binding activates complement pathway
- complement proteins dogpile
- protein encased bacterium destroyed by lysis or phagocytosis
When ____ and ____ bind together, activates C3, cascade occurs, complement proteins dogpile.
Mannose and lectin
Mannose (sugar), is just on _____ cells, not body cells
bacterial