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56 Cards in this Set

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Name 5 industrial applications microbiology has.
1) Food industry
-organic acids, supplements, enzymes

2) Pharmaceutical applications
-Antibiotics

3) Agricultural applications
- Bioinsecticides

4) Environmental biology
- Bioremediation (remove pollutants from environment using microorganisms)

5) Vaccine production
What are the main products of fermentation?
acid

alcohol
What are some products of the TCA Cycle when the TCA cycle is stopped at citric acid?
citric acid is used to make:

1) inks and dyes
2) soft drinks
3) chemistry
4) anticoagulants (heart disease therapy)
5) foods
In genetic engineering and biotechnology, products are achieved through ____ and ____. Or through ______.
mutation and screening of natural gene pool

recombinant DNA techniques
What are the results of recombinant DNA techniques?
1) redesign of a gene (and the protein it encodes)

2) Modification of gene expression

3) Transfer genetic information between organisms
What are the three tools of Recombinant DNA?
1) site-directed mutagenesis
2) random mutagenesis using PCR
3) Restriction and modifying enzymes

* site-directed mutagenesis and random mutagenesis are opposites
What is site-directed mutagenesis?
Use oligonucleotides, DNA primers with designed mutation incorporated.

Pick a site to change on a gene and mutate it.
What is Random mutagenesis using PCR?
-Use MANGANESE as cofactor instead of magnesium for polymerase chain rxn
-Causes polymerase to be more error prone

A gene goes through PCR, which randomly mutates a gene
Human genes can be cloned in microorganisms
look on page 252
Mutation and Screening of Available Gene Pool. Say that your desired product is PENICILLIN. It is the first antibiotic to be mass-produced. Originially, it came from _____, which yielded 5mg/L.
Penicillium notatum
What is the other, better, source of penicillin? This source is even further improved by ____ and subsequent screening. Its yield is ___mg/L.
P. chrysogenum

UV mutation

60,000mg/L
Redesign of Gene using Recombinant DNA. What is Hirudin?
an anticogulant polypeptide (takes out blood clots)
Hirudin's effects are similar to ___ or ___.
warfarin or heparin

Hirudin has 65 amino acids
In redesigning hirudin using Recombinant DNA, use _____ mutagenesis to change ASN47 to ___ or ___
site-directed

LYS or ARG

* single amino acid change results in improved anticoagulant activity
Control regions of genes can be altered to change _____ levels.
expression
In modification of Gene Expression, engineer a _______ to increase expression of desired gene
promoter construct
Give an example of a promoter construct that increases an expression of a desired gene.
AOX1 promoter of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

- Used to express over 500 heterologous proteins including angiostatin and endostatin
Transfer of Genetic Information is achieved by _____
genetic engineering
What is the world's toughest bacterium?
Deinococcus radiodurans- tolerates high levels of radiation
What bacterium tolerates high levels of radiation?
Deinococcus radiodurans
E. coli have genes that degrade ionic _____ compounds
mercury
Transfer ____ genes to Deinococcus to create recombinant bacteria that can _____
E.coli

clean up radioactive toxic waste sites
Primary metabolites are made during _____
trophophase
Are primary metabolites associated with growth phase?
yes
Give some examples of primary metabolites
amino acids, fermentation end products, enzymes
Seconday metabolites are made during _____.
idiophase
Do Secondary metabolites have a direct relationship to growth?
NO
Give 3 examples of secondary metabolites
antibiotics
antimicrobials
mycotoxins
Give examples of products of industrial microbiology
1) Antibiotics
2) Microbes that make bacterial cement
3) Biosurfactants
4) Bioinsecticides
5) Biosensors
6) Bioremediation
7) White Rot Fungus
Give three examples of antibiotics
- Neomycin (Streptomyces fradiae)

- Polymyxin B (Bacillus polymyxa)

- Griseofulvin (Penicillium griseofulvum)
What digests urea to make ammonia?
Bacillus pasteurii, sporosarcina ureae
Ammonia and water create____
ammonium hydroxide
Ammonium hydroxide converts calcium chloride to __________ which crystallizes as limestone.
calcium carbonate
Give an overview of microbes that make bacterial cement
- Bacillus pasteurii, sporosarcina ureae digest urea to make ammonia

- Ammonia and water create ammonium hydroxide

- NH2OH converts calcium chloride to calcium carbonate which crystallizes as limestone
Biosurfactants are used for?
emulsification, solubilization, and phase dispersion
______ can make a biosurfactant which is a glycolipid emulsifier - improves oil recovery
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
What is used for emulsfication, solubilization, and phase dispersion?
biosurfactants
What toxin kills caterpillars?
Bacillus thuringensis
Bacillus thuringensis is a toxin that kills caterpillars by ___
forming pores in caterpillar guts
What toxin kills mosquitoes
Bacillus sphaericus
What toxin kills Japanese beetle larvae?
Bacillus popilliae
What genes do you use to create transgenic insect resistant crops?
Bacillus genes
Use Bacillus genes to create _____
transgenic insect-resistant crops
What are biosensors used for?
Use microbes to 'sense' whether toxic products are around
E.coli containing lux genes (from Vibrio or Photobacteirum) emit ____
light
E.coli containing lux genes that emit light are used as a warning system to detect failures in _____
waste-water treatement plants
What does it mean if bacteria fail to emit light?
toxic pollutants are still in the water
What is bioremediation?
Removing pollutants from environment using microorganisms
What is PCBs?
polychlorinated biphenyls

it is a bad pollutant!
Naturally occurring microbes can partially dehalogenate PCBs under ____ conditions
anaerobic
You would _____mud to get aerobic bacteria to complete degradation.
aerate
Give an example of white rot fungus
Phanerochate chysosporium
White Rot FUngus, Phanerochaete chysosporium, degrades ___.
lignin
What is lignin and where is it found?
phenylpropane-based polymeric compound found in wood
Besides lignin, name 6 other items White Rot Fungus can degrade
-benzene
-toulene
-agent orange
-TNT
-Xylenes
-Chlorinated compounds such as pesticide and herbicides
What is the problem with sending engineered microbes into the environment?
- engineered microbes can't actually contact target

- Engineered microbes fail to survive environment and compete with indigenous microbes, so they die or get eaten