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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
most important chemical bonds in biological molecules
covalent bonds
formation of covalent bonds
electron-sharing between atoms
science of chem
bond rearrangement/electron rearrangement
molecules
smallest part of substance that still retains the chem and phys properties of it. composed of atoms
element
all atoms of a molecule are alike
number elements naturally occurring
92; rest are mandmade
compound
molecule contains diff kinds of atoms
atom defined by...
what is it?
atomic number
or: # of protons
# electrons =
# protons
atoms get their weight by...
protons and neutrons
but electrons...
bond atoms together to form molecules
analogy of nucleus
distance to the electron is like a vast space
of 1st 30 elements, how many essential to human life?
20 of the first
what are we based of?
carbon-based animals
most common atoms in living things are (by number)

...then ignore water
hydrogen
oxygen
carbon
nitrogen

...ignore water: HCON
what determines the chemistry of an atom?
# of electrons in the outer shell
bond looks like
a straight line
hydrogen GAS
naturally occurring
2 atoms bonded together
H2
chemical bond is formed...
between 2 atoms share a pair of electrons
Hydrogen
atomic # = 1
for complete outer shell: must form a bond with another atom by electron sharing (H, C, O, N)
Carbon
atomic # = 6
4 on the outer shell
FORMS 4 OUTER BONDS with other carbon, hyd, nitr, etc.
methane
1 carbon
4 hydrogen
CH4
Nitrogen
atomic # = 7
5 on the outside
Forms 3 bonds by electron sharing to complete shell

NH3 = ammonia gas

(the other 2 just hang together)
now there are 8 on the outer edge
Oxygen
atomic # = 8
may be bonded to 2 Hydrogen --> H2O or water
oxygen molecules
2 O atoms held by double bond
share 2 prs of electrons
covalent bond
electron sharing!
double bond
double line
element composition of living things (in order)
oxygen-->carbon-->hydrogen
-->nitrogen-->calcium
atoms' characteristic # of bonds...
H-1
O-2
N-3
C-4
ethyl alcohol
simple molecule that shows characteristic bonding