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53 Cards in this Set

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A protozoan is also called the "first animal." It is ____ and ____
unicellular and eukaryotic
Protozoans are found in ____
moist habitats
Most protozoans are _____ and do not have ____
heterotrophic
chlorophyll
Most protozoans eat about 5 million bacteria/day. They take in nutrients by engulfing food particles. What protozoan does not have chlorophyll?
Euglena
Protozoans are more complex than bacteria, therefore, they take longer to ____
replicate
More complex than bacteria, take longer to replicate. Therefore, diseases caused by protozoans generally have a _____
longer incubation time
Protozoa are classified by type of movement. What are four types of protozoa?
1) amoebas
2) flagellates
3) ciliatees
4) apicomplexans (sporozoans)
WHat is unique about apicomplexans (sporozoans)?
don't move in adult form
Structure of protozoans. Typical eukaryotic cell with added features. Some, but not all. What is the rigid structure of protein?
pellicle
What are the organelles which expel/uptake water in freshwater protozoa?
contractile vacuoles
What are the structures for independent motion? (any type of organelle that assists motion)
locomotor organelles
What are two growth forms of protozoa?
trophozoite
cyst
Trophozoite
feeding form of protozoan
cyst
similar to spore. dormant form, protozoan will form thick case around itself during times of environmental stress
Reproduction
Reproduction generally is asexual, although some protozoa have sexual stage.
Amoebas move by ____
pseudopodia
Amoebas move by pseudopodia. ___ and ____ involved in amoeboid motion
actin and myosin
Pseudopodia capture small algae/other protozoa with process of ____
phagocytosis
How big are amoebas?
up to 1mm in size
What is the name of one type of amoeba?
acanthamoeba castellani
Acanthamoeba castellani can cause _______
corneal infections in those who wear contact lenses
Acanthamoeba castellani will grow in tap water and can cause ____ if serious
blindness
What lives at the bottom of the REd Sea?
Radiolarian ooze
What do radiolarians and foraminiferans have?
pedicle
What represents 1/2 of all protozoa?
flagellates
Flagellates move by flagella. Some free-living, others live with plants or animals. Name 3 flagellates
1) Giardia lamblia
2) Pfiesteria piscicida
3) Euglena
Giardia lamblia causes what disease?
giardiasis
Pfiesteria piscicida does what?
kill fish with toxins
Euglena is unique because?
it contains chlorophyll
Ciliates have cilia in longitudinal or spiral rows. THey have a primitive _____ and ____
gullet and 'mouth'
what are 3 special features of ciliates?
1) Kappa factors
2) trichocysts
3) contractile vacuoles
kappa factors
encode toxins, kill kappa-less ciliates
trichocysts
organelles discharge filaments to trap prey
contractile vacuoles
freshwater species only
Describe sexual recombination in paramecium
A) Two cells make contact and a cytoplasmic brdige forms between them.
B) The micronucleus in each undergoes meiosis to form four micronuclei per cell.
C) Three micronuclei disintegrate and the one remaining undergoes mitosis.
D) An exchange of micronuclei takes place.
E) The cells separate, the micronuclei fuse, and the macronuclei disintegrate.
F) A new macronucleus forms in each cell from mitotic divisions of the micronucleus
Apicomplexans have _____ in adult form
no motion
Apicomplexans. One end of cell (apex) contains complex for ______
penetrating host cells
Apicomplexans include many ______ protozoa
parasitic
What are some diseases caused by amoebas and flagellates?
1) Amoebiasis
2) Giardiasis
3) Trypanosomiasis (Central African sleeping sickness & East African and South American Chagas Disease)
4) Leishmaniasis
What is the causative agent of amoebiasis?
Entamoeba histolytica
Entamoeba histolytica is transmitted by contaminated food/water. It passes through the stomach as _____ and emerges as ____
cysts
trophozoites
Using their protein-digesting enzymes, called ____, the amoebas penetrate the wall of the large intestine, causing _____ and ___
proteases
lesions and ulcers
Proteases cause lesions/ulcers in intestine. It may spread to other organs through blood and cause ____
fatal abscesses
Symptoms of amoebiasis
pain, bloody stools, not much diarrhea
What is used to treat amoebiasis?
Metronidazole and paromycin
Metronidazole (brand name = Flagyl) and paromycin are useed to treat amoebiasis, but the drugs do not affect the ____, and repeated attacks of amoebiasis may occur for months or years.
amoebiasis
Giardia Lamblia is a flagellate with 4 pairs of ___ and 2 ____
flagella
nuclei
Giardia lamblia is transmitted by water contaminated with feces. examples?
beavers carry cysts, daycare workers
Cysts can survive really cold water, and are not killed by ____
chlorine
Giardiasis. Cysts pass through stomach, trophozoites emerge in ____
duodenum
Suckers stick to intestinal lining, cover surface of intestine without invading. What are the symptoms of Giardiasis?
extensive diarrhea, cramps, flatulence, nausea
People infected with giardia lamblia can become carriers for years. What's the test for giardiasis?
Enterotest capsule.

Swallow gelative pill at end of string. It goes down stomach to intestines. Pull back up and see if trophozoites of giardia are stuck
What is giardiasis treates with?
quinacrine, furzolidine, metronidazole