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90 Cards in this Set

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Name five intrinsic factors that relates to food spoilage
1) Food composition
2) pH
3) water availability
4) physical structure
5) presence of natural antimicrobial substances
Name 3 types of food composition
1) High protein food spoilage
2) High fat food spoilage
3) High carbohydrate food spoilage
If a high protein food spoils, and proteins break down, the proceess is called _____
proteolysis/putrefaction
If a high protein food spoils, and proteins break down, the proceess is called proteolysis/putrefaction. Smelly _____ such as _____ are released
amines
cadaverine
High fat food spoilage undergoes ______
lipid hydrolysis
High fat food spoilage undergoes lipid hydrolysis. ______ fatty acids
rancid
High carbohydrate food spoilage is not _____
smelly
High carbohydrate food spoilage is not smelly. First signs of food spoilage is usually ______
fungi
High carbohydrate food spoilage is not smelly. First signs usually fungi. Fruits/veggies get soft rot because of _______ which produces hydrolytic enzymes
Erwinia carotovora
High carbohydrate food spoilage is not smelly. First signs usually fungi. Fruits/veggies get soft rot because of Erwinia carotovora which produces _____
hydrolytic enzymes
Low pH favors _____
yeast or molds (fungi)
Higher pH favors ______
bacteria
Meats tend to be ______ (favoring bacteria)
alkaline
Higher pH favors bacteria. Meats tend to be alkaline (favoring bacteria). Meats undergo _________, which gives off a smell
putrefaction/proteolysis
Drying of water ________ spoilage (no water=no life)
controls/eliminates
dehydration of microorganisms is achieved by _____
hypertonic solutions (salt or sugar)
Drying controls/eliminates spoilage (no water=no life). Dehydration of microorganisms achieved by hypertonic solutions (salt or sugar). Exceptions: _________ organisms (yeast) can tolerate high salt/sugar
osmophilic
______ organisms (molds) prefer low water availability
xerophilic
osmophilic organisms
yeast- can tolerate high salt/sugar
xerophilic organisms
molds- prefer low water availability
name 3 prepared meats that spoil easily
hamburger, sausage, cold cuts
prepared meats have an increased surface area and altered ______, resulting in rapid spoilage. Contaminants distributed more evenly.
cell structure
Steak is safer than ___
hamburger

A raw steak is not likely to spoil quickly because microoranisms cannot penetrate the meat easily. However, an uncooked hamburger can deteriorate rapidly, since microogranisms exist within the loosely packed ground meat as well as on the surface.
Give examples of antimicrobial foods
1) Cinnamon, mustard, oregano
2) Garlic
3) egg whites
4) cloves
5) unfermented green teas
Cinnamon, mustard, oregano contain antimicrobial _____ and ____
aldehydes and phenols
Garlic contains ____
allicin
egg whites contain ______ and has a pH of ____
lysozyme
9.0
While Egg whites contain lysozyme and is an antimicrobial food, egg yolks tend to get contaminated easily. ____ species cause black rot in eggs as hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) accumulates
Proteus
Proteus species cause _____in eggs as hydrogen sulfide gas accumulates
black rot
Proteus species cause black rot in eggs as _________ gas accumulates
hydrogen sulfide
Green rot is caused by ____
pseudomonas
red rot is caused by ____
serratia marcescens
Cloves contain _____
eugenol
Unfermented green teas contain _____
polyphenols
Polyphenols contain both ____ and possibly ______ properties
antimicrobial
anticancer
Polyphenols get rid of _____
oxygen free radicals
Polyphenols get rid of oxygen free radicals and cause ____
RNA damage
There are 4 major classes of polyphenols called _____
Catechins
Green tea is unfermented. It has ______ properties that are preserved after heating
antioxidant

Oolong tea is semi-fermented
Black tea is fermented
What are 3 extrinsic factors related to food spoilage?
1) temperature
2) humidity
3) atmosphere
_____ temperatures reduce microbial growth/prolong storage
lower
Some microorganisms may survive storage and start growing at _____ temperature
room
_______ bacteria can tolerate low temperature. (S. aureus)
psychrotrophic
humidity. Lower ____ tends to prolong storage
moisture
Atmosphere. What allows for oxygen diffusion?
shrink-wrap
Oxygen allows for increased growth of microorganisms such as _____ on the surface
Pseudomonas (obligate aerobe)
_____ inhibits bacteria (mostly G-) and reduces spoilage
Carbon dioxide
Milk is a soln of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates that is an ideal environment for spoilage organisms. What is the first step to milk spoilage?
Acid production by Lactococcus lactis
Acid production by Lactococcus lactis. Growth of acid-tolerant ______ (more acid produced), causing milk curdles to form
lactobacillus
Acid production by lactococcus lactis. Growth of acid-tolerant Lactobacillus (more acid produced). Yeasts/molds dominate at lower pH, degrade ____ and ____
lactic acid and raise pH
Acid production by Lactococcus lactis. Growth of acid-tolerant Lactobacillus (more acid produced). Yeasts/molds dominate at lower pH, degrate lactic acid, raise pH. At higher pH, protein-digesting bacteria become active, resulting in a ______ flavor and _____odor
bitter
putrid
What are four types of foods that spoil quickly?
1) moist foods
2) neutral foods (fish, bananna)
3) unrefrigerated
4) ground or sliced meat
What are 4 types of foods that resist spoilage?
1) Dry foods
2) acidic foods
3) refrigerated
4) whole meat
THe FDA acronym, GRAS, stands for ____
generally recognized as safe
CHemical Agents of Food Preservation. Sodium nitrite is good for what two reasons?
1) inhibits growth of Clostridium botulinum and increases meat safety
2) Nitrite decomposes to nitric acid. Nitric acid reacts with heme pigments to keep meat red to make meat more appealing to consumers
What is bad about sodium nitrite?
Nitrites react with amines to form carcinogenic nitrosamines (can cause cancer)
Give an example of a naturally produced antibiotic
nisin
Nisin is a naturally produced antibiotic made by ________, and it is nontoxic
Lactococcus lactis
Nisin inhbits _____ and targets _______ bacteria
peptidoglycan synthesis
gram-positive bacteria
Nisin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis and targets gram-positive bacteria such as: ___ and ___
enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium botulinum
Vinegar is produced when yeast ferments _____to ____ until the concentration is about 10 to 20%
fruit juice
alcohol
Vinegar is produced when yeast ferments fruit juice to alcohol until the concentration is about 10 to 20%. ______ converts alcohol to _______ to ______
Acetobacter aceti
acetylaldehyde
acetic acid
Cheese production. Starter culture of _______ or ____, _______ or _____
Lactococcus lactis or cremoris, lactobacillus or Streptococcus
Cheese production. Starter culture of Lactococcus lactis or cremoris, lactobacillus or Streptococcus. Bacteria ferment lactose, make acid, causing ____ to form
coagulating milk proteins (curds)
Starter culture of Lactococcus lactis or cremoris, lactobacillus or Streptococcus. Bacteria ferment lactose, make acid- coagulating milk proteins. ____ is also added to help with curdling
rennin
Starter culture of Lactococcus lactis or cremoris, lactobacillus or Streptococcus. Bacteria ferment lactose, make acid- coagulating milk proteins. Rennin is also added to help with curdling. _____ is separated from curd (coagulated protein), curds are then _________
whey (liquid)
pressed and salted
Starter culture of Lactococcus lactis or cremoris, lactobacillus or Streptococcus. Bacteria ferment lactose, make acid- coagulating milk proteins. Rennin is also added to help with curdling. Whey (liquid) separated from curd (Coagulated protein), curds pressed and dalted. Cheese is then ____ to develop flavor and texture
ripened
Cheese has over 2000 varieties from lactic acid fermentation of milk, coagulation of milk proteins, formation of curd. Swiss cheese is made by what type of bacteria?
Propionibacterium.

Propionibacterium produce organic compounds and carbon dioxide, which makes holes
Gorgonzola, Stilton, and Roquefort cheese is made by what?
Penicillium roqueforti
Soy Sauce is produced from roasted soybeans and wheat inoculated with what fungus for 3 days?
Aspergillus oryzae
Soy sauce is produced from roasted soybeans/wheat innoculated with Aspergillus oryzae for 3 days. The fungus-covered product, called ______, then is added to a solution of salt and microorganisms, and aged for about a year.
Koji
Soy sauce is produced from roasted soybeans/wheat innoculated with Aspergillus oryzae for 3 days. The fungus-covered product, called koji, then is added to a solution of salt and microorganisms, and aged for about a year. During this time, lactobacilli produce acid, and yeasts produce small amounts of alcohol. Soy sauce is the liquid ________ from this mixture
pressed
Name four types of beer
1) ales
2) stouts
3) lagers
4) pilseners
To make ales and stouts, use ____
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
To make ales and stouts, use saccharomyces cerevisiae, sometimes called ____
top yeast
Lagers and pilseners use ____
Saccharomyces carlsbergensis
Lagers and pilseners use Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, sometimes called ____
bottom yeast
Industrial Fermentation. _____ is held in malting tanks
barley
industrial fermentation. Barley is held in ______
malting tanks
industrial fermentation. Barley is held in malting tanks. Naturally occurring enzymes digest ______ to ______
starch to malt sugar (maltose)
industrial fermentation. Barley is held in malting tanks. Naturally occurring enzymes digest starch to malt sugar (maltose). Malt is mashed in ____
mashing tank
industrial fermentation. Barley is held in malting tanks. Naturally occurring enzymes digest starch to malt sugar (maltose). Malt is mashed in mashing tank. ____ or ____ is removed
liquid or wort
industrial fermentation. Barley is held in malting tanks. Naturally occurring enzymes digest starch to malt sugar (maltose). Malt is mashed in mashing tank. Liquid, or wort, is removed. ____ are added to wort. Hops gives flavor, color and stability.
Hops
industrial fermentation. Barley is held in malting tanks. Naturally occurring enzymes digest starch to malt sugar (maltose). Malt is mashed in mashing tank. Liquid, or wort, is removed. Hops are added to wort. Hops gives flavor, color and stability. Then, ____ is added for fermentation
yeast
industrial fermentation. Barley is held in malting tanks. Naturally occurring enzymes digest starch to malt sugar (maltose). Malt is mashed in mashing tank. Liquid, or wort, is removed. Hops are added to wort. Hops gives flavor, color and stability. Then, yeast is added for fermentation. Beer is then ____ and ___
aged and bottled
What is the purpose of the root beer lab?
to produce root beer by fermentation of sugar
What are the ingredients in root beer?
sugar (white and brown)
root beer extract
water
champagne yeast
A protozoan is also called the "first animal." It is ____ and ____
unicellular and eukaryotic
Protozoans are found in ____
moist habitats
Most protozoans are _____ and do not have ____
heterotrophic
chlorophyll