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7 Cards in this Set

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What are the 4 defining characteristics of eusociality?
1. Group Living
2. Reproductive division of labor (not all individuals reproduce equally)
3. Overlap of 2 or more generations (ex. parents and offspring)
4. Cooperation in caring for young.
Explain Hamilton's haplodipoloidy theory.
In haplodipoid insects (ants, bees, wasps), full sisters are related by 3/4 and to offspring by 1/2
What are pieces of evidence supporting Hamilton's theory?
all the hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps) are haplodiploid and ONLY females are workers!

all the isoptera (termites) are diploid (no relatedness asymmetry) and both sexes are workers.
Challenges to the Hamilton hypothesis:
1) if the queen mates many males, r of sisters decreases
2)Many eusocial insects are NOT haplodiploid (termites)
3) Many haplodiploid insects are NOT eusocial (even in Hymenoptera)
So what's the final conclusion?
Haplodiploidy is neither necessary nor sufficient to account for eusociality.
What is an example of organisms fitting the definition of eusociality but are not haplodiploid? Explain.
Naked mole rats...LOTS of reproductive skew. the smallest non breeding naked mole rats do the food work and the biggest ones bite through the earth making tunnels. REMOVAL OF THE QUEEN IS DETRIMENTAL TO THE COLONY
Eusociality (and helping) is determined by ecology and kin selecion (rb-c > 0). Explain this in naked mole rats.
extremely hard soil and the necessitty of cooperating to find food are the ecological constraints that minimize dispersal.