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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Functions of the vertebral column
protect spinal cord, support skull, attachment for ribs, muscles and ligaments
how many vertebrae
7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
4 coccygeal
primary curvatures
present at birth, concave
thoracic and sacral
secondary curvatures
develop after birth, convex
cervical and lumbar
throacic curvature exagerated- eigor
exaggerated lumbar
abnormal lateral curvature
what part of the vertebra supports the weight of the body
anterior (body)
what part of the vertebra portects the spinal cord
vertebral arch
what is a pedicle
connects the lamina to the body
connect pedicles to spinal process
vertebral foramen
opening formed by the vertebral body and vertebral arch
vertebral canal
adjacent vertebral foramena
contains the spinal cord and meninges
spinous process
one, dorsal aspect of the vertebra, connected to vertebral arch
transverse process
two, in cervacle vertabrae contain transverse foramen,
superior transverse processes
makes space to attach vertebrae together
inferior transverse processes
space to attach vertebrae
superior vertebral notch
indentation of the body and superior articular process
inferior vertebral notch
indentation of the pedicl
intervertebral foramen
adjacent superior and inferior vertebral notches
spinal nerve or roots pass through
may contain root ganglion
Cervical vertebrae
small oval bodies
transverse processes contain foramen and have anterior and posterior tubercles
transverse plane articular surfaces
transverse processes of cervical vertebrae
contain foramen, anterior and posterior tubercles
forament of the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae
vertabral artery travels toward the brain in the foramen
anterior and posterior tubercles of the cervical vertebrae
form a groove for the exiting spinal nerve
articular surfaces/facets of the cervical vertabrae
transverse plain prevents excessive extension
Atlas vertebra
supports the occipital condyles of the skull at it superior articular process/facet or lateral mass
no spinous process
Axis vertebra
bifid spinous process
dens/odontoid-point of rotation for the skull
how is the dens/odontoid held in place
the transverse ligament of the atlas
Thoracic vertebrae
12, heart shaped bodies, long oblique caudally spinous processes, articulates with ribs, coronal plane for articular surfaces/facets
the name of the facets the articulate with the ribs on the thoracic vertebrae
costal surfaces/facets
describe the costal sufaces/facets of the thoracic vertebrae
one or more on the body for articulation of the head of the rib
one on the transverse process for the tubercle of the rib
plane of intervertebral articular surfaces/facets on articular processes
coronal plane, prevents extension
lumbar vertebrae
5, large bodies, short spinous process, extra process for attachment of muscles,
extra processes of the lumbar vertebrae
mammillary process located on the superior articular process

accessory process located on transverse process
intervertebral articular facets closest to the...
saggital plane...limit rotation
sacral vertebrae
5, fused, articulates with the illieum, sacral canal
coccygeal certebrae
3 or 4, fused small vertebral arch is incomplete
articular processes of adjacent vertebrae are what type of joint
synovial joint
surrounded by capsular ligaments, cavity, surface of articular process covered with hyaline cartilage
intervertabral disks
separate vertebrae bodies, consist of annulus fibrosus, and nucleus pulposus (gelatinous with high water content)
intervertabral disk ligaments
anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments
anterior longitudinal ligament
runs on the anterior surface of the boedies of the vertebrae from C1-sacrum
posterior longitudinal ligament
runs on the posterior surface of the bodies of the vertebrae from the axis to the sacrum
found within the vertebral canal
broadens over the disks, narrows over bodies
ligamentum flavum
yellow elastic ligament attaching lamina to lamina of adjacent vertebrae
found in the vertebral canal
estends traversely from the midline to the articular processes
supraspinous ligament
connects spinous processes from C7 to sacrum
capsular ligaments
surround synovial joints between adjacent articular processes inferiorly and superiorly
interpsinous and intertransverse ligaments
adjacent spinous and transverse processes joined by
craniovertebral joints
atlantooccipital joints
atlantoaxial joints
atlantooccipital joints
articulations between the superior articular process/lateral masses of C1 and the occipital condyles of the skull

permits flexion and extension
anterior and posterior antlantooccipital membranes
connect the margins of the foramen magnum of the skull and the anterior and posterior arches of C1
transverse ligament of the atlas
extend between the superior articular porcesses/lateral masses of C1 to hold the dens/odontoid process of C2 against the anterior arch of c1
cruciform ligament
formed by bands of the transverse ligament that extend to the bodu of C2
alar ligaments
extend from sides of dens to lateral margin of foramen mangnum- check side to side movement of the head
tectorial ligament
continuation of posterior longitudinal ligament
atlantoaxial joints
two lateral and one medial synovial joints
two lateral joints of the atlantoaxial joint
between superior articulary processes.lateral masses of cv1 and cv2
one medial joint of the atlantoaxial joint
between the dens of c2 and anterior arch of C1
atlantoaxial joint
permits head to move side to side, skull and c1 rotate as one unit on c2, medial joint is the pivot joint
spinal cord ventral horn
spinal cord dorsal horn
lateral horn
cranial and spinal nerves
8 cervical
12 thoracic (3-11 are typical)
5 lumbar
5 sacral
1-2 coccygeal
dorsal and ventral roots
attaches to spinal cord, individual nerve fibers that carry info in and out of the spinal cord,
dorsal root
afferent, sensory, cell bodies are in the spinal ganglion, or dorsal root ganglion

end in sensory organs or as free endings

there is not synapse between the stimulus and the spinal cord
ventral root
carry impulses to voluntary muscles, cell bodies are inside of spinal cord, no synapses with other neurons, contains motor fibers of the ANS
spinal nerver
formed by dorsal and ventral roots, less than a centimeter in length, devides into dorsal and ventral rami
dorsal primary ramus
innervates the deep muscles of the back and the skin over them

receives sensory stimuli from all the tissues in the posterior part of the segment to which it belongs
anterior ramus
anterior aspect of the body
recieves sensory stimuli- side (lateral cutaneous branch) and front anterior cutaneous branch

near origin two communicating rami arise
two communicating rami of the anterior ramus
white-autonomic fivers to the symoathetic trunk from anterior ramus

gray- carries fibers from the sumpathetic trunk to the ventral rami
plexuses of the anterior ramus
cervical (c1-4)
brachial (c5-t1)
sacral (l4-s4)
area of skin supplied by a single spinal cord segment or level
contents of vertebral canal
spinal cord, nerve roots, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, extra dural fat and a venous plexus
spinal cord
extends from brain stem to between L1/L2, exit the spinal cord and join to form the spinal nerve at the appropriate intervertebral foramen, taper to form the conuse medullaris
esit spinal cord and join to form the spinal nerve at the apporpriate intervertebral junction, cauda equina in the lumbar and upper sacral region
dura mater, arachnoid membrane, and pia matter
dura matter
tough, outermost covering of the spinal cord, sepparated from the arachnoid mater by a narrow subdural space, attached at the foramen magnum and to the coccyx by the coccygeal ligament
arachnoid membrane
suparated from the pia by the subarachnoid space, contains 150 mL of cerebrospinal fluid (produced in the ventricles by the brain by the choroid plexus), delicate spider web like structure
pia matter
innermost layer directly covering the spinal cord
denticulate ligaments- lateral extension of pia that anchor the pinal cord to the dura mater
filum terminale
extension of pian from the conus medullaris which extends to the endo of the subarachnoid space/dura sax at sv2 and continues as the coccgeal ligament