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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sensorimotor stage
0-2 years
over the course of the first 2 years, infant's sensorimotor intelligence develops through 6 increasingly complex substages
Object permanence
<9 months old and it means notions of ideas even in their absence
-->or the knowledge that objects continue to exist even when they are out of view
Pre-operational stage
2 to 6 or 7 years old. This is where the child begins to develop internal mental representations
Symbolic representations
is developed in pre-operational stage. It is the use of one object to stand for another.
i.e. banana for a telephone
is developed during pre-operational stage. It is perceiving the world solely from one's own point of view. Communication is involves statements where the child assumes that the other knows things that the child knows. Also 3 mountains
Part of the pre-operational stage. Is focussing on a single, perceptually striking feature of an object or event to the exclusion of other less striking features. i.e. the balance scale problem where the child will look at the weights and not the distance from the fulcrum. They can not decentre
Conservation concept
Comes from centration which comes from the pre-operational stage. Is that merely changing the appearance or arrangement of objects does not necessarily change their key properties, such as quantity of material. They can't quite manage this.
Concrete Operations Stage
Ages 7 to 12. They begin to reason logically about concrete features of the world. They develop conservation concept. They can solve many problems that require attention to multiple dimensions. Can now manipulate internal representations mentally
Piaget's key ideas
1. Qualitative changes in children's thoughts
2. Focus of biological adaptation and growth of knowledge (epistemology)
3. Invariant sequence of general patterns of thought (stages)
4. The development of operational intelligence
Piaget's 4 weaknesses
1. The stage model depicts children's thinking as being more consistent than it is.
2. Infants and young children are more cognitively competent than Piaget recognised
3. Piaget's theory understates the contribution of the social world to cognitive development
4. Piaget's theory is vague about the cognitive processes that give rise to children's thinking and about the mechanisms that produce cognitive growth
Characteristics of Information processing theory
1. Precise specification pf the processes involved with info-processing.
2. An emphasis on thinking as an activity that occurs over time, with numerous distinct mental operations underlying a single behaviour.
3. Emphasis on structure and processes (structure = basic organisation of the cognitive system) (processes = many specific mental activities)
Task analysis in Info Processing
Identification of goals, relevant information in the environment, and potential processing strategies
Information processing
Is more quantitativein change component processes that underlie thinking. i.e. like a computer
It is memory, attention, problem solving
What do Piaget and Information Processing both rely on?
Unassisted "social" development
Stages of development
Culture and thought
Knowledge Modularity
Domain specifity
Information Processing theorists view children as:
Undergoing continuous cognitive change and occurs in small increments rather than broadly and abruptly (all levels are qualitatively different from each other) like Piaget
The Child as a Limited-Capacity Processing System
Cognitive development arises from children's gradually surmounting their processing limitations through expansion of memory capacity, increasingly efficient execution of basic processes and acquisition of new strategies and knowledge
The Child as a Problem Solver
Children are active problem solvers
emphasized the role of socialisation in children's intellectual development
By Vygotsky - the mutual understanding that people share during communication