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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What's the definition of systematics?
the study of biological diversity and its evolution.
the process of biological classification (= categorizing and naming biological diversity)
the science of phylogeny (the evolutionary history of a group of species).
What's Linnaean Classification?
a hieracrchical method of naming: King Phillip Came Over For Genus Species:
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
T or F, the linnaen method was fundamentally flawed. Explain (give an example).
T. ex: if birds descended from reptiles, at what point did they stop belonging to Reptillia and start belonging to Aves? What group do you put the Archaeopteryx which is bird-like and reptile like?
What does the Linnaean classification work well for though?
summarizing evolutionary diversity
What is the most fundamental unit of biological classification?
species (all higher categories are at least somewhat arbitrary).
What do higher categories depend on?
1) quality of evolutionary trees (phylogeny)
2)decisions about where to draw the breakpoints
(even in the best studied groups (birds and mammals), we are still discovering many unknown species).
How are species named?
with a latin binomial that includes the genus name and the species name
ex: Canus familiaris, Homo sapiens (Genus, species)
What is someties listed following the species name?
the name of the person who first described the species
Who gets to name a species??
whomever describes the new species first.
What are 2 naming conventions everyone should know?
1) genus and species names are italicized.
2) sometimes genus is abbreviated:
D. melanogaster
what's the plural of genus?
what does "spp." mean?
used when referring to multiple species within a genus:
Drosophila spp.
What does the third word in a trinomial name give?
the subspecies (geographic race)
T or F. Lots of species have been identified.
F. Only a small fraction of species have been identified (maybe 10%)
_______ is the cornerstone of all ecology and evolutionary biology. Explain.
Species identification. Ecosystem functioning can no be well understood if species are not characterized. Identification and mitigation of human damage to biodiversity requires species IDs
Species ID is often ___________ important. Explain
economically. Ex: economic importance of taxonomy: phytophthora (plant killer) BAD economic impact
T or F. The same tree can be drawn in different ways.
What are nodes?
Points where 1 (ancestral) lineage splits into 2 or more (derived) lineages
What do branches or internodes show?
ancestral populations through time
What do termini or tips show?
most recent (derived) branches (can be living or extinct
what's a taxon?
any named group of organisms.
What's an operational taxonomic unit (OTU)?
one of the organisms being compared in a phylogenetic analysis.
What is polytomy?
a node with more than 2 derived lineages
Define clade (monophyletic group).
the set of species descended from a particular common ancestor.
What are some characters used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships?
1) morphological traits (color, structures, etc.)
2)Biochemical traits (DNA, proteins, etc.)
3) Behavioral traits, etc.
Define homology
similarity that results from inheritenceof traits from a common ancestor
Define homoplasty
similarity in characters found in different species that is due to convergent evolution, parallelism, or reversal but NOT COMMON DESCENT.
Define convergent evolution
character similarity resulting rom independent responses to a similar environment. Example: wings of bats and birds, eye structure of octopus and fish, and placement of eyes in hippos and crocks.
what's parallel evolution?
character similarity in closely related taxa resulting from independent responses to a similar environment.