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98 Cards in this Set

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oceanic crust recycled by?
continental crust?
plate tectonics

weatherng, erosion, deep melting
oceanic crust age
200 my, avg 70 my
continental crust age
3800 my, avg 650 My
abyssal plains
cool, subsided
active margin
convergent or transform fault, earthquakes, volcanism
passive margin
tectonically quiet
cont. shelf
submerged continental crust, 25%, gently sloping
cont. slope
steep slope, overjoin with cont. and oceanic crust
cont. rise
gently slope
proton
pos, ~ 1 amu
neutron
0, ~1 amu
electron
neg, ~.00055 amu
nucleus
protons, neutrons,
very small, dense
electrons in orbitals
organized by energy shells
electrically neutral
electrons=protons
element
unaltered in chemical reaction
- fundamental substances into which matter can be separated by chemical means
atom
smalles unit with properties of an element
Z
number of protons in nucleus
, 1<Z<92
Atomic mass
Z + N

1,A,238
isotopes
atoms of same element (Z number)
- same chem. behavior
- diff, nuclear behavior
different number of neutrons
radioactive decay
spontaneous, nucleus of one element > nucleaus of another
periodic table
elements arranged by Z number
- rows- energy level
- columns- groups, same electron configuration, chemical similarities
inert/ noble gas
no tendancy to react
fall energy
continental crust, elements
O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K
whole earth, elements
Fe, O, Si, Mg, Ni, S, Ca, Al
abundant elements are
light
compounds
elements chemically bonded in definite proportions
bonding
electrons attracted to each other
pure elements in nature
gas- h2, n2, o2, he
liquid- Hg
solid- au, ag, pt, cu, s, c
ion
atom which has gained or lost one electron
cation
loss of election- + charge
anion
add election- - charge
complex ion-
bonded group of atoms with net positive or net negative charge

CO3-2
ionic bonding
complete e- transfer
attraction of opposite charges
covalent bonding
equal e- sharing
ex. some pure elements like N2, Diamond
real bonds
incomplete transfer, unequal sharing
regularities in periodic table
noble gases, no ions
o group, f group- anions
otherwise- cations
continental crust made up of
O-2 and Si+4
mineral
natural, solid, specific chemical composition, characteristic crystal structure
polymorph
same compostiion, different structures
minderal properties
- crysatl form
- cleavage
- color, streak
- hardness
- density, specific gravity
cleavage
tendancy to break along planar surfaces
- preferred orientation
- relatively weak bonding
NaCl
color
reflects composition
hardness
releative resistance to scratching
moh scale
measures harness
10- diamond
1- talc
density
mass/ volume
most cont. crust minderals are
2.5-3 g/cm^3
specific gravity=
mass/mass of equal vol. of water
silicate minerals
classification by anion
- based on SiO4 4- tetrahedron
reduce net negative charge by O sharing
polymerization
silicate mineral classes
single tetrahedron(no O sharing)
ring structures (+ cations)
single chains (+cations)
double chains
sheet structures
3 d networks
single tetrahedron
no O sharing, cations,

olivine, garnets
ring structures
cations

beryl, ore of Be
single chains
cations

pyroxenes
rockforming
double chain
cations besides Si 4+

amphiboles
rock forming
sheet structures
cations besides si 4+

micas- fillers, insulators
clay minerals- fillers, ceramics, absorbents
three dimensional networks
quartz, felspars
as single tetrahedron moves towards a 3-d network
0 sharing increases (polymerization)
atom ratio decreases
electrical charge per Si(-4-0)
ferromagnesian minerals
high Fe, dark, dense

olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite
non silicate minerals (by anion)
sulfides, oxides, halides, carbonates, sulfates
sulfides
galena- ore of Pb, batteries
spahalerite- ore of zn, brass
chalcopurite- ore of Cu
oxides
hematie
magnetite
al oxide
halides
NaCl, evaporation of seawater
carbonates
calcium carbonates- calcite, aragonite
sulfates
evap of seawater, second most abundant anion
phosphates
ca phosphate, apatite
vertebrate bones, teeth
ionic substitution
fertilizer phosphoric acid
pyroxens
rock forming minerals
mineral deposit
volume of rock enriched in one or more minerals
ore
mineral deposit from which minerals can be extracted profitably
profitability
grade of deposit, concentration of mineral/element of interest
- require enrichment relative to avg.
costs of production
mining, benefication (removal), gangue(worthless mineral components), refinery, transporation to market
gold stable from:
1935-1971

35$ a troy oz.
depletion allowance
deducaiton from taable income based on eventual exhaustion of resource
resource
concentration of material currently or potentially economically feasable
reserves
exonomically extractable at present
hypothetical resource
known mining distric undiscoveresd deposits
speculative resource
geologic settings similar to known deposits
rock
naturally formed, non living, firm, coherent, solid
2 elements of rock classification
mode of origen, properities of specimen
- minerals, chem composition
- ttexture- grains, grain size, shape orientation
lithification
interlocking grains, growth from fluid
cement mineral in spaces between grains
rocks strong in
rocks weak in
compression
tension
sediment
regolith that has been transported and deposited
metamorphism
changes due to elevated T,P
magma
molen rock, suspended grains, dissolved gases
total cont. crust
95% igneous, 5 % sedimentary
surface crust
75% sedimentary, 25% igneous
intrusive
cooled within crust, slowly
extrusive
colled at surface or seafloor, rapidly
phaneritic
visible to the eye
- intrusive=large grains
aphanitic
visible only with magnification
extrusive, obsidian
porphyritic
large grains in fine matrix
slow-phenocrysts, rapid- matrix
grain packing
lithification by interlocking grains
common minerals:
silicates such as olivines, pyroxens, amphiboles, micas feldspars, quartz
pyroclast
rock ejected during volcanic eruption
tephra
unlithified cumulation of pyroclasts
bomb

lapilli

ash
>64 mm in diameter fall close in
lithification of igneous particles
particles fuse together while still hot, ementation
minerals typical of extreme compostitions
granite- Na feldspar
basaltic- Ca feldspar