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17 Cards in this Set

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Age related physical changes of the eye
The lens thickens and becomes less elastic.
The pupil decreases in size.
Cornea thickens.
Vitreous fluids become cloudy.
Age associated visual changes that are not severe
Decreased light sensitivity
Impaired night vision
Increased glare sensitivity
Decreased ability to adjust from light to darkness.
Decreased ability to focus on near objects (presbyopia), the light is focused pass the retina
Presbyopia
decreased elasticity of the lens, considered to be normal aging, far sided
Lens can't focus near objects
Affects most older people
Starts as early as age 40
Correctable by glasses
Cataracts
"looking through a waterfall"
Cloudiness of lens, the leading cause of REVERSIBLE blindness in the U.S., doesn't always cause loss of vision, 50% of people 60+ have cataracts, reversible through surgery which removes the lens and replaced with artificial lens or glasses
Glaucoma
caused by increased buildup of aqueous humor, which causes interocular pressure and damages the optic nerve and the retina, leading cause of IRREVERSIBLE blindness in older people in the U.S., "sneak thief of sight", there is medication to eliminate fluid build up
Macular degeneration
Loss of central vision
Dry & wet forms: wet is more dangerous
Until recently, MD was NOT reversible, but there are some promising new drugs
Causes of hearing loss in aging
Presbycusis - "usual" aging, noise, disease, medications
1/3 of 65+ populations have hearing loss
Presbycusis
age associated hearing loss, leading cause of hearing loss in older adults, loss of high pitched sounds, harder to screen out background noise, men are at greater risk
Impact of presbycusis
hearing loss is not perceived or acknowledged, decreased social activities, withdrawl, depression, paranoid feelings, others withdraw from the hearing-impaired person
Why are hearing aids underused?
hearing is not 100% restored, 20-25% use hearing aids, not perfect solution but many times helpful, uncomfortable, expensive, some say it stigmatizes them
Balance and equilibrium involves...
vestibular senses
visual
peripheral
Falling
Not inevitable part of life
Most often preventable
May relate to meds
Elders may not report
Unpredictable impact on lives of elderly
Tai Chi
Improves balance and strength
UCLA study that shows it augments immunity, protects against varicella zoster virus
Ishoe
Developed by Leiberman (grad student at Harvard), first developed for astronauts who had trouble with balance after returning from space
Pressure sensors relay data to MD
An alarm in the shoe to report falling
What happens to touch as we age?
As we age, receptors decrease both in number and sensitivity. There is a decreased ability to detect, locate, and identify objects. This also impairs ability to manipulate objects.
What happens to smell as we age?
Modest changes (10%)
Decrease in number of sensory neurons in nasal lining
Indicator of Alzheimer's disease
Food-borne illnesses, impairs appetite, inability to smell natural, gas, burned food, etc
What happens to hearing as we age?
Age related changes affect hearing and balance
Earwax can build up
Organ of Corti can be affected by atherosclerotic changes
Prebycusis - hearing loss with age which is common.
Lose higher pitches first, inability to screen out background noise, shorter hair cells which respond to higher pitches witness wear and tear