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43 Cards in this Set

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microbiology
study of organisms too small to be clearly seen by unaided eye
microorganisms include...
viruses
bacteria
protozoa
algae
fungi
spontaneous generation
ARISTOTLE

misconception that living organisms can dev. from nonliving matter
Francesco Redi
experiments on decaying meat

maggots come from fly eggs, not meat
Antony van Leeuwenhoek
constructed simple microscope and lenses (50-300x)

"wee animacules"
Robert Hooke
made drawings of Mucor (bread mold)

work led to cell theory
cell theory
all living things are composed of cells
John Needham
proposed that organic matter contained vital force

mutton broth in flasks -> boiled -> sealed; cloudy broth developed and contain microorganisms
Lazzaro Spallanzani
broth in flasks -> sealed -> boiled

no growth of microorganism

propose air carried germs to culture or that air was needed for growth of organisms already in medium
Anton Laurent Lavoisier
showed importance of oxygen to life
Rudolf Virchow
concept of biogenesis to challenge spontaneous generation
biogenesis
living cells can only arise from preexisting living cells
John Tyndall
proposed that dust carried microorganisms

provided evidence for existence of heat-resistant forms of bacteria
Ferdinand Cohn
independently discovered existence of heat-resistant bacterial endospores
Agostini Bassi
silkworm disease due to fungal infection
Ignaz Semmelweis
childbirth fever:
physicians transmit disease from one patient to another
M.J. Berkeley
potato blight caused by fungus
Joseph Lister
treated surgical wounds w/ phenolic soln
Bob Koch
established relationship b/w Bacillus anthracis and anthrax
Edward Jenner
used vaccination procedure to protect individuals fro small pox
variolation
deliberate infection w/ small pox
Pasteur and Roux
attenuation (incubation of cultures for long intervals b/w transfers caused pathogens to lose ability to cause disease)
Louis Pasteur
demonstrated alch fermentation and other fermentations were result of microbial activity

developed process of pasteurization to preserve wine during storage
Sergei Winogradsky
Martinus Beijernck
studied soil microorganisms; nitrogen fixation

pioneered use to enrichment cultures and selective media
three common bacterial shapes
coccus
bacillus
spiral
three types of spiral bacteria
vibrios
spirilla
spirochete
vibrios
curved rods
spirilla
2 or more twists
spirochete
corkscrew shaped
diplo
pairs
staphylo
grape-like clusters
strepto
chains
arrangements of bacilli (4)
single bacillus
diplobaccilli
streptobacilli
coccobacillus
inclusion bodies
storage (C, PO3, etc)
periplasmic space
enzymes, binding proteins, etc.
mesosome
invagination of plasma membrane
gas vacuole
provides buoyancy
capsules and slime layers
phagocyte resistance, adherence
fimbriae and pili
attachment and mating
hopanoids
pentacyclic

stabilize membrane

have contributed to formation of petroleum
two types of proteins in plasma membrane
peripheral
integral
integral proteins
amphipathic
carbs
plasma membrane function
selectively permeable membrane
location of variety of crucial metabolic processes
separation of cell from environment
site of receptor molecules