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26 Cards in this Set

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What are the natural defenses of the blood?
1. Phagocytic cells
2. Filtering action of lymph nodes and spleen
3. IgG and IgM
4. Endogenous organism
What virus caused Hepatitis B?
Hepatitis B virus.
What virus caused AIDS?
Human immunodeficiency virus
How are Hep B and AIDS transmitted?
By blood-borne route, but can be present in any body fluid in an infected individual.
What are 6 ways that AIDS & Hep B can be transmitted?
1. blood products and blood contaminated formites
2. Transplacental and perinatal
3. milk of infected nursing mothers
4. salivas
5. vaginal secretions
6. semen
Hep B vs. AIDS in the probability to be transmitted
1. Hep B is very plentiful is an infect individual, while AIDS particles are relatively scared in blood. 2. Hep B is more resistant to environment, i.e. drying and radiation. Versus, AIDS is very sensitive to drying, boiling, and chlorination.
AIDS is very sensitive to what environment factors?
Drying, boiling, and chlorination
What is the Pathology of Hep B?
Invade liver and destroy liver cell.
Does Hep B follows the iceberg principles?
Yes, most ppl are asymptomic.
3 Ways to prevent STD
1. screening of body fluid donated to others
2. use of new needles
3. use of gloves and other protective clothing
Hep B is common in who?
Drug users, medical personnel, homosexual males, and immigrants from endemic Hep B areas
Hep B vs. Hep A in incubation period
Infectious Hep: 1-2 weeks
Hep B: 1-2 months
How to diagnose Hep B?
detect antibody of virus
What is the immune response of Hep B?
Humoral
What is the treatment for Hep B?
Only palliative treatment. Bedrest. Immunoglobulin. Passive immunization (if severe)
How to prevention Hep B?
Available subunit vaccine.
Pathology of AIDS
1) HIV infects T-helpers cell. Virus integrates to cell DNA. CD4 cells die. 2) Macrophage infect but not kill; act as reservoir
Infected microbes for AIDS patients
1) Thrush - Candida albicans
2) Keposi's sarcoma - cancer of blood vessel
3) Pneumocystis cainii pneumonia - fungal infection
4) Several Protozoal disease
5) HSV & VZ
6) TB
7) neruological abnoramlities
Treatment for AIDS
constantly changing as new drugs come out.
1) AZT - inhibit reverse transcriptase
2) Protease inhibiitors - stop consturction of virus
Prevention for AIDS
1) Prevent infected women from conception nor birth
2) Vaccine - hard b/c strands keeps mutating
Biological vectors of blood borne disease
mosquitoes, biting flies, bugs, lice, tick, and mites.
Etiology of Malaria
Sporozoa (parasitic)
Pathology of Malaria
migrant to liver. go to blood. destroy red blood cell.
Treatment
-Melfoquine
-Primaquine
Prevent
pesticides, drainage of swamps & canal, mosquitos repellent, vaccine, exclude w/malaria history as blood donor
Why is West Niles virus more prevalence in summer?
Mosquitoes are more active then.