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77 Cards in this Set

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Tolman's demonstration of Latent learning suggests that:
Reinforcement is more of a factor in the performance than the learning of a response.

He allowed rats to freely explore mazes for 10 days but the rats did not display any proficiency in solving the maze until they were reinforced for doing so.
What has been shown to be the most effective treatment for agoraphobia?
In vivo exposure. The goal is to extinquish the classically conditioned response by exposing the person to the CS without the US.
Studies investigating the effects of in vivo flooding for this disorder suggest that:
High anxiety provocation is not a key factor in the effectiveness of in vivo.
In terms of short and long term effects, which is better Mnemonic devices or rote memory?
Mnemonic devices are better for short term effects but after one week are not better than rote memory.
What is an initial strategy used in structural family therapy?
Joining. 2 methods of joining the family system are tracking and mimesis. Tracking involves identifying and using the family values, life events, etc in conversations. Mimesis is adopting the family's communication and affective styles.
What is blocking?
Blocking is a phenomenon that occurs in classical conditioning. It is theorized that the second CS does not provide information beyond what is already provided by the original CS. The second CS never becomes associated with the US.
What intervention strategy would be useful in helping employees to quit smoking?
Behaviorally-oriented programs that include work site competition and incentives are most effective for reducing employee cigarette smoking.
Aversive conditioning
Delay conditioning involves applying the CS for more than 5seconds before the start of the US so that presentation of the 2 stimuli overlaps and both are terminated together. Of the various types of forward conditioning delay conditioning is usually the most effective. For example to maximize the effectiveness of the treatment, the aversive stimulus (electric shock) should be applied immediately after the client begins drinking.
What is DRO?
DRP stands for differential reinforcement for other behaviors. For example a therapist working with a child who bites her nails sets a timer so that it rings every 5 minutes. For every 5 minute period in which the child does not bite her nails she earns a token.
Avoidance conditioning
Classical conditioning. Initial fear response is a classical conditioning response in which fear is attached to a previously neutral stimulus through its pairing with a stimulus that naturally elicits fear (US). The organism then learns to avoid the CS in order to avoid the fear response (negative reinforcement).
Premack Principle
Type of positive reinforcement in which the reinforcer is a frequently occuring behavior.
Serial position effect
When given a list of things to remember, people tend to remember the beginning and end of the list.
This fact is explained by the fact that words at the beginning of the list make it into long term memory while words at the end of the list are still in short term memory.

The multi store model proposes 3 memory systems, sensory register, short term memory and long term memory. This is a potential explanation of this phenomenon.
Arbitrary inference
drawing a conclusion without specifc supporting evidence or even when there is contradictory evidence.
Selective abstraction
interpreting a situation on the basis of a single detail taken out of context
Premack Principle
Type of positive reinforcement in which the reinforcer is a frequently occuring behavior.
Serial position effect
When given a list of things to remember, people tend to remember the beginning and end of the list.
This fact is explained by the fact that words at the beginning of the list make it into long term memory while words at the end of the list are still in short term memory.

The multi store model proposes 3 memory systems, sensory register, short term memory and long term memory. This is a potential explanation of this phenomenon.
Personalization
attributing external events to himself without evidence supportign a causal connection.
Arbitrary inference
drawing a conclusion without specifc supporting evidence or even when there is contradictory evidence.
Selective abstraction
interpreting a situation on the basis of a single detail taken out of context
Personalization
attributing external events to himself without evidence supportign a causal connection.
Premack Principle
Type of positive reinforcement in which the reinforcer is a frequently occuring behavior.
Serial position effect
When given a list of things to remember, people tend to remember the beginning and end of the list.
This fact is explained by the fact that words at the beginning of the list make it into long term memory while words at the end of the list are still in short term memory.

The multi store model proposes 3 memory systems, sensory register, short term memory and long term memory. This is a potential explanation of this phenomenon.
Arbitrary inference
drawing a conclusion without specifc supporting evidence or even when there is contradictory evidence.
Selective abstraction
interpreting a situation on the basis of a single detail taken out of context
Premack Principle
Type of positive reinforcement in which the reinforcer is a frequently occuring behavior.
Serial position effect
When given a list of things to remember, people tend to remember the beginning and end of the list.
This fact is explained by the fact that words at the beginning of the list make it into long term memory while words at the end of the list are still in short term memory.

The multi store model proposes 3 memory systems, sensory register, short term memory and long term memory. This is a potential explanation of this phenomenon.
Personalization
attributing external events to himself without evidence supportign a causal connection.
Arbitrary inference
drawing a conclusion without specifc supporting evidence or even when there is contradictory evidence.
Premack Principle
Type of positive reinforcement in which the reinforcer is a frequently occuring behavior.
Selective abstraction
interpreting a situation on the basis of a single detail taken out of context
Premack Principle
Type of positive reinforcement in which the reinforcer is a frequently occuring behavior.
Serial position effect
When given a list of things to remember, people tend to remember the beginning and end of the list.
This fact is explained by the fact that words at the beginning of the list make it into long term memory while words at the end of the list are still in short term memory.

The multi store model proposes 3 memory systems, sensory register, short term memory and long term memory. This is a potential explanation of this phenomenon.
Personalization
attributing external events to himself without evidence supportign a causal connection.
Serial position effect
When given a list of things to remember, people tend to remember the beginning and end of the list.
This fact is explained by the fact that words at the beginning of the list make it into long term memory while words at the end of the list are still in short term memory.

The multi store model proposes 3 memory systems, sensory register, short term memory and long term memory. This is a potential explanation of this phenomenon.
Arbitrary inference
drawing a conclusion without specifc supporting evidence or even when there is contradictory evidence.
Arbitrary inference
drawing a conclusion without specifc supporting evidence or even when there is contradictory evidence.
Premack Principle
Type of positive reinforcement in which the reinforcer is a frequently occuring behavior.
Serial position effect
When given a list of things to remember, people tend to remember the beginning and end of the list.
This fact is explained by the fact that words at the beginning of the list make it into long term memory while words at the end of the list are still in short term memory.

The multi store model proposes 3 memory systems, sensory register, short term memory and long term memory. This is a potential explanation of this phenomenon.
Selective abstraction
interpreting a situation on the basis of a single detail taken out of context
Selective abstraction
interpreting a situation on the basis of a single detail taken out of context
Arbitrary inference
drawing a conclusion without specifc supporting evidence or even when there is contradictory evidence.
Personalization
attributing external events to himself without evidence supportign a causal connection.
Personalization
attributing external events to himself without evidence supportign a causal connection.
Selective abstraction
interpreting a situation on the basis of a single detail taken out of context
Personalization
attributing external events to himself without evidence supportign a causal connection.
What is the matching law?
Purports that when implementing concurrent schedules of reinforcement, Proportion of responses will match the proportion of reinforcements.
Rescorla-Wagner theory:
Applied to classical conditioning.

Amount of conditioning depends on how unexpected the association between the CS and US. The more unexpected the US the more conditioning will occur.
What are the sequela of Otis media in children?
Mild to moderate hearing loss.

attention problems

language deficits

behavioral problems

lower school achievement
What are the 3 levels of processing in the levels of processing model?
semantic is the deepest level and results in the best recall. Elaborative rehearsal is one way to encode at the semantic level (giving things meaning). Thereby elaborative rehearsal is one way to improve recall.
This was proposed by Craik and Lockhart 1972.
What is the feature integration theory of attention?
the perception of objects involves 2 stages. 1. preattentive in which the basic aspects of an object are perceived in parallel (edges, size, color)

Attentive stage: features are glued together into a coherent whole through a serial process.
What did Ebbinghaus show in his research on the relationship of time on memory?
He constructed the "curve of forgetting" which shows that 50% of memorized syllables are forgotten within less than 1 hour. Rote learning leads to rapid forgetting.
What is memory trace decay?
Attributes memory loss to a decay in memory over time.

This concept has been discredited by research that has shown the memory for specific information is better after 5 hours of sleep than after 5 hours of wakeful activity.
What is implosive therapy and what is it used for?
uses classical extinction with psychodynamic interpretation. It is used to treat phobias and to eliminate self-reinforcing bx's.
Df: Covert Sensitization
a type of aversive conditioning that is conducted in imagination.
What has been found thus far regarding the treatment utility of hypnosis for OCD?
A few studies have shown that it can help decrease obsessions especially when used in conjunction with other behavioral treatments such as flooding.

Note the treatment of choice for OCD thus far has been shown to be: In vivo exposure with response prevention.
What is implicit memory? Give an example of how to evaluate it.
Implicit memory refers to memory that is effortless or automatic. Relatively unaffected by normal aging. Word stem completion is the only one used to assess implicit memory.

Word-stem completion
P A T _ _
Subsequent research on the Primacy and recency effects has revealed what?
Recency primacy shift contradicts the axiom that memory tends to fade over time. Specifically the research has shown that for both verbal and nonverbal tasks as the delay between study and recall increases memory for the last item on the list decreases but memory for the first item increases. There is a shift from a recency to a primacy effect.
What is DRO?
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior. The individual is reinforces at the end of each time period during which he/she engages in behaviors other than the target behavior.

DRO is facilitated when the other behaviors are already
in the person's repertoire.
Df: Carry over effects
A problem in repeated measures designs when the effects of one treatment (or measure) have an impact on the effects of subsequent treatments (or measures).
Df: Hawthorne effect
Research subjects act differently b/c of the fact that they know that they are being observed and/or the novelty of the situation.
Df: Demand Characteristics
Unintentional cues in the experiment that suggest to the participants how they are are expected to perform which then accounts for the results in the study
Df: Quasi-independent Variable
When an organismic variable (that can't be truly manipulated) is treated like an IV
In intervention research, what is a criticism of the use of a wait-list control group?
This type of control group may be susceptable to "demand artifacts". Those in the waitlist control may seek out or encounter other factors that change their behavior while they are waiting.
How long does sensory memory hold info?
Sensory information only retained for .25-2 seconds
What is a particularly useful cognitive restructuring technique for individuals with anxiety d/o?
Decatastrophizing: b/c people with anxiety do tend to overestimate the risk and percieved danger.
What is implicit memory?
Implicit memory is the memory for words and objects.
implict memory is an aspect of long term memory relatively impervious to aging, brain damage and drug induced amnesia.
In terms of the level of processing model which level results in the deepest level of processing?
Self-referencing processing involves considering the relationship of the information to be retained to oneself. This has been found to lead to more recall then semantic processing (in the past considered the deepest and most effective type of information processing.

Self-referencing processing produces more recall than phonemic, semantic or acoustic recall.
Name the 4 processes of observational learning.
Attention (attending and accurately perceiving the bx).
Retention (symbolic processing of the modeled behavior).
Reproduction
Motivation
What is Experimental Neurosis?
Described by Pavlov.
Extremely difficult discrimiations resulted in behaviors characteristic of human neurosis (manifested by restless, aggressive, and fearful responses). Induced by requiring the dogs to make difficult decisions.Stimulus discrimination refers to an organisms ability to discriminate between stimuli and thereby respond only to the conditioned stimulus wuth a conditioned response.
What psychological treatment has been shown to be useful for the treatment of hypertension?
biofeedback. Biofeedbace is about as effective as relaxation and self monitoring.
How do you maximize the usefulness of prompts to facilitate the developmetn of stimulus control?
Prompt should focus the attentikon on the discriminative stimulus

use weakest or least intrucis prompts possible

Fade the prompts as soon as possible.

Prompts when they are associated with the discriminative stimulus apparently b/c it increases attention to the stimulus
What is physical guidance?
Manually guiding the individual through the desired movements
Df: Thinning
reducing the amount of reinforcement: for example from a continuous to an intermittent schedule.
What is the mechanism of change in desensitization treatment of anxiety?
exposure to situations that evoke anx without actually experiencing negative consequences.
What is common to implosive therapy and flooding?
Through exposure to feared stimulus either in vivo or in imagination, the conditioned response is eventually extinquished.

extinction to the undesireable response?
What factors increase the effectiveness of punishment?
intenisity of punishment

applied immediately following a behavior

applied consistently rather than intermittently

relationship between the punishment and the target behavior is verbally clarified

When the individual is warned that the punishment will occur

When reinforcement is offered for a competing behavior

when all reinforcement for the target behavior is withheld.
Df: Zeigarnik Effect
The tendency to remember interrupted or uncompleted tasks better than completed ones.

Most often occurs in nonstressful situations. Under stressful situations they are unlikely to occur.