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72 Cards in this Set

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conditional knowledge
understanding when and why to employ declarative and procedural knowledge
declarative knowledge
that (facts, dates)
procedural knowledge
how (strategies)
3 variables influencing cognition
1. learner 2. task 3. strategy
learner variables influencing cognition
1. cognitive abilities (metacognition)2. motivation 3. age
task variables influencing cognition
level of difficulty, differentiating strategies
strategy variables influencing cognition
increase in complexity and number w. age, tend to use external (ie writing) strategies rather than internal mental strategies
3 steps of concept learning
1. identifying attributes 2. generalizing to new examples 3. discriminating examples from non-examples
4 steps of concept attainment
1. concrete 2. identity 3. classificatory 4. formal
concrete concept attainment
discriminate one concept from another
identity concept attainment
generalization starts to occur- recognizing concept in different settings
classificatory concept attainment
small, horizontal recatangle is the same as large, verticle rectangle
formal concept attainment
learner can define attributes, distiguish from other concepts, explan meaning of concepts- abstract
learner status classical conditional
passive
learner status operant conditional
active participant
goal of reinforcement
increase behavior
goal of punishment
decrease behavior
5 schedules of reinforcement
1. continuous interval 2. fixed interval 3. variable interval 4. fixed ratio 4. variable ratio
continuous interval
every behavior reinforced- followed by rapid increase in behavior
fixed interval
reinforced after fixed period of time regardless of number of responses made
variable interval
interval of time between reinforcers varies in unpredictable way
fixed ratio
reinforcement delivered ever time specific number of responses made
variable ratio
reinforcers provided after a varied number of responses
schedule of reinforcement that produces greatest number of responses, most resistant to extinction
variable ratio
5 implications for teaching classical condtioning
1. avoid c. conditioned negative emotions 2. link learning with positive emotions 3. teach students to discriminate strengths and weaknesses appropriately 4. help students cope with c. conditioned anxiety 5. treatment of anxiety/ phobias= systematic desensitization
3 steps of systematic desensitization
1. develop list of steps from least to most anxiety provoking 2. learn relaxation techniques 3. practice imagery of anxiety producing event and pair relaxation
type of behavior explained by classical conditioning
automatic
type of behavior explained by operant conditioning
complex
behavioral theory of motivation
reinforcement increases behavior and punishment decreases behavior

examples: high/ low grades, praise/ criticism
cognitive theory of motivation
thinking and how thoughts create or reduce motivation to act

examples: understand purpose of schoolwork, attribute success to hard work (internal v. external locus of control)
social learning theory of motivation
combines behavioral and cognitive approaches

examples: setting goals that are personally meaningful
humanistic theory of motivation
intrinsic reinforcers based on human needs to achieve, excel and self-actualize

examples: warm, supportive classroom environment wehre teachers encourage students
Maslow's hierarchy of needs and student achievement (7)
1. biological (food, oxygen)
2. safety/ security (shelter, protection, emotional safety)
3. need to belong, feel that others love and care, part of meaningful group
4. need for self-esteem, feel worthwhile
5. need to know/ understand surroundings and self
6. aesthetic needs (beauty/ balance in physical, intellectual, emotional and spiritual world
7. self actualization
underlying assumptions of social cognitive theory
reciprocal interactions (triadic reciprocity), self efficacy can affect achievement behaviors
reciprocal interactions
triadic reciprocity between person, behavior and enviornment

depending on situation, one may be stronger
4 achievement behaviors influenced by perceived self efficacy
1. choice of task 2. persistence 3. effort expenditure 4. skill aquistion
enactive learning
actual doing and learning from consequences of one's own actions
vicarious learning
through observation of others or without overt performance at the time of learning (listening, reading, tv)
2 instances requiring combination of enactive and vicarious learning
1. students with disabilities (particularly social learning) 2. learning complex skills
modeling
a general term that refers to beahvioral, cognitive, and affective changes deriving from observing models
3 functions of modeling
1. response facilitation 2. inhibition/ disinhibition 3. observational learning
response faciliation
actions that serve as social prompts for observers to behave accordingly "going along with the crowd"
inhibition
models are punished for certain actions, which stops observers from acting accordingly
disinhibition
models perform threatening or prohibited activities without negative consequences
observational learning
observers display new behaviors that, prior to exposure to modeled behaviors, have zero probability of occurance even when motivated
4 subprocesses of observational learning
1. attention 2. retention (rehersing) 3. production (then feedback) 4. motivation (consequences create expectation of functional value, raise self-efficacy)
5 steps of self-instruction
1. cognitive modeling
2. overt guidance
3. overt self-guidance
4. faded overt self-guidance
5. covert self-instruction
cognitive modeling
teacher speaks aloud while performing task
overt guidance
student performs same actions while talking aloud, under direction of teacher
overt self-guidance
student performs task while instructing self aloud, without guidance of teacher
faded overt self-guidance
student whispers the self instructions rather than saying them aloud
covert self-intruction
student performs task guided by inner silent speech
cognitive modeling- Meichenbaum
incorporates modeled explanation and demonstration with verbalization of the model's thoughts and reasons for performing given actions
problem
situation in which you are trying to reach a goal and must find some means to get there
3 historical approaches to problem solving
1. trial and error 2. insight 3. heuristics
trial and error
performing actions until one works (not reliable, effective, efficient)
insight
awareness of likely solution (think about what you know, what rules, strategies could be applied to the situation)
heuristics
rules of thumb, general priciples that usually lead to solution, IDEAL
IDEAL
Identity problem
Define problem
Explore possible strategies
Act on the strategies
Look back and evaluate effectiveness
4 problem solving strategies
1. generate and test 2. means-end 3. analogical reasoning 4. brainstorming
generate and test
generate soulution, then test-useful with problems with multiple but limited solutions that can be ranked according to some background knowledge
means-end
compares current situation with goal and identifies differences between them. Break down into subgoals and work backwards
analogical reasoning
drawing analogy between problem situation and similar/ familiar situation
8 types of transfer
1. near
2. far
3. literal
4. figural
5. low road
6. high road
7. forward reaching
8. backward reaching
near transfer
much overlap between learning situations
far transfer
little overlap, contexts dissimilar
literal transfer
intact skill or knowledge transfers to new task
figural transfer
use of some aspects of general knowledge- metaphors or analogies to relate situation to one another
low road transfer
automatic- transfer of well-established skills (learning to drive car, then driving another car)
high road transfer
abstraction through conscious formulation of connection between situations (learning to drive car, then driving boat)
forward reaching transfer
abstracting ideas from one situation to next context, thinking about application
backward reaching transfer
integrating previously learned skills and knowledge