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101 Cards in this Set

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Thorndike
"Animal Intelligence" monograph
cat boxes - rewards w/learning to push lever
thought learning pattern for both animals/humans was trial-and-error, mechanistic
Thorndike's Law of Effect
Responses followed by satisfaction tend to be repeated and discomfort tend not to be repeated.
Thorndike's Law of Exercise
A response repeated often in presence of particular stimulus will more likely be repeated in presence of that stimulus.
Thorndike's Law of Readiness
Organism must be ready to perform act befroe performing it could be satisfying
Transfer of training
specific not general
caused by similarity of concepts not intellectual faculties
Thorndike's "identical elements"
transfer of learning increases as similarity of stimulus and response elements in training and performance environments increases
Who is considered the "father of behaviorism"
Watson
Watson's belief about learning
learning due to classical conditioning involving innate reflexes
-"radical behavioralism"
Optimal time between CS and US for CR to occur?
.5 seconds, though optimal time depends on what behavior is being conditioned
CR is strongest and most rapidly acquired when _____ is used.
delayed procedure - CS before but overlaps US
CR is least likely to be acquired when ____ is used.
backward conditioning - US precedes CS.
"reinforcement" in classical conditioning vs. operant conditioning
classical - a signal reinforces an involuntary (natural) response
operant - reinforcement increases voluntary behavior
spontaneous recovery
when an organism no longer responds to the CS but reappears later (evidence an extinguished response is not forgotton only suppressed)
stimulus generalization
response is elicited by similar stimulus (i.e. white rat vs. any white furry animal)
higher-order conditioning
Having a CS become a US for another stimulus.
Second CS is typically weaker.
Pavlov could only achieve second-order, not third-order conditioning.
sensory pre-conditioning
two CS's are paried during preconditioning sessions and both presented alone exhibit UR.
Pseudoconditioning
When the change in behavior is not conditioned to the stimuli, rather to the learning situation itself. (i.e. cues in entire room put together rather than loud noise elicits response)
experimental neurosis
a result of making difficult discriminations between stimuli
counter-conditioning
pairing an undesirable behavavior with an incompatible behavior to eliminate it. ex. systematic desensitization, assertiveness training, sensate focus
Author of systematic desensitization
Wolpe
Techniques based on classical extinction
flooding and implosive therapy
Flooding
Guthrie
a.k.a. deliberate exposure w/response prevention
exposing individual to anxiety-provoking stimuli while preventing avoidance response
graded exposure
a variation of flooding whhere the person is gradually exposed to aspects of the feared stimulus
- found as effective and instant exposure
Which more effective: in-vivo flooding or imaginal flooding?
in-vivo
Which more effective: prolonged exposure or brief exposure?
prolonged
What has been found to be effective in tx of Agoraphobia and OCD?
in-vivo flooding or graded exposure
implosive vs. imaginal therapy
Stampfl
implosive involves a psychoanalytic as well as behavioral component. Imagery includes psychodynamic themes such as aggression, sexuality etc.
Aversive conditioning
a noxious stimulus is paired with a behavior targeted for elimination so that avoidance response is elicited by targeted behavior, ex. antabuse.
**noxious stimulus is the US
covert sensitization
aversive conditioning taking place through imagination, using unpleasant images.
-effective in paraphilias
The principle underlying systematic desensitization's success?
exposure to feared stimulus or extinction, although developed on principles of counterconditioning
operant extinction
withdrawal of reinforcement from a previously reinforced behavior so that the behavior is decreased or eliminated.
response burst
phenomena of temporary increase in behavior that occurs when reinforcer is removed
behavioral contrast
when two behaviors are reinforced and one is extinguised, the second behavior increases
spontaneous recovery
responses increase after extinction without reinforcement (like classical conditioning)
primary vs. secondary reinforcers
primary - inherently valuable, i.e. food, water
secondary - allows one to acquire primary reinforcer, i.e. money
generalized secondary reinforcers (generalized conditioned reinforcers)
A reinforcer that can allow one to acquire many different primary reinforcers, i.e. tokens or money can buy food, shelter, entertainment etc.
continuous reinforcement schedule
reinforcing every response
quick learning, but quick extinction
Switching from continuous to intermittent reinforcement to increase resistance to extinction after behavior is learned is called what?
thinning
Fixed ratio vs. fixed interval schedule
fixed ratio - reinforcement after a fixed NUMBER of responses
fixed interval - reinforcement after fixed TIME period regardless of # of responses
scallop effect
occurs during fixed interval schedules
Which intermittent schedule produces lowest rate of responding?
Fixed Interval, also lowest resistance to extinction
Variable ratio vs. variable interval
VR - reinforce after variable number of responses, ex. gambling.
VI - reinforcement after unpredictable amount of time, ex. pop quizzes
Which intermittent schedule produces highest rate of responding?
Variable ratio, also highest resistance to extinction
Matching law
when given two+ opportunities for reinforcement, rate of each response is proportional to rate of reinforcement.
avoidance conditioning
Mowrer's two factor theory
combo of classical and operant conditioning, ex. claustrophobia
-1)behavior is avoided through pairing of aversive stimuli w/event and 2) avoidance responses are negatively reinforced by termination of fear/anxiety when behavior is avoided
Discriminative stimulus
environmental cue that a behavior will be reinforced
S-Delta stimulus
environmental cue that a behavior will not be reinforced
stimulus discrimination or stimulus control
when the presence of one stimulus but not another produces behavior
stimulus generalization
learning to respond to a similar but different stimulus
chaining
Explains acquisition of complex behaviors.
Each response in series acts as both a secondary reinforcer for previous response as well as discriminative stimulus for the next response in chain.
response generalization
reinforcement increases similar responses
shaping
reinforcing closer and closer approximations of desired behavior
shaping vs. chaining
shaping's outcome is one specific, simple behavior while chaining's outcome is a series of several independent behaviors and each is important
adventitious reinforcement
accidental or coincidental pairing of response and reinforcement, ex. superstitious behavior.
Factors influence effectiveness of reinforcement
1. positive reinforcement available only after target behavior
2. Shortest interval
3. switch from continuous to intermittent
4. clarification of relationship
5. greater magnitude = greatest effectiveness (to a point then satiation occurs)
Factors influence effectiveness of punishment
1. extreme and continual
2. sooner delievered
3. consistently applied
4. clarification of relationship and warning cue
5. reinforcing alternate behaviors
6. maximum intensity at outset (avoiding habituation, similar to tolerance)
Effects of removing punishment
Behavior returns to baseline
At first reaches level higher than baseline
Shaping often used in treating which disorder?
Autism, i.e. language development
Premack Principle
using a high probability behavior to reinforce a low probability behavior, ex. study first then watch tv
Time-out
secluding access to positive reinforcers
-a form of extinction
-if isolation is aversive stimulus then also punishment
overcorrection
correction of negative behavior while also repeated and exaggerated practice of appropriate behavior
response cost
negative punishment
removal of pre-specified reward when a behavior is performed, ex. removal of allowance
Which punishment technique is most effective?
response cost
ex. when teaching sociopath response cost more effective then physical punishment or social disapproval
DRO - differential reinforcement of other behaviors
operant extinction and positive reinforcement
non-reinforcement of target behavior while reinforcing all other behaviors
contingency contracting
establishing a formal written contract that specifies target behaviors and the reinforcers/punishers contingent upon them
Factors influencing success of contingency contracts
1)informs both tx strategies as well as expected outcomes
2) explicit about rewards and sanctions
3) behaviors included can be monitored
4) contract elicits stmts of participation from client
token economy
structured environment where tokens are used as reinforcers for targeted behaviors. can also include response cost
Kohler known for?
Gestalt psychologist
"a-ha!" experience or insight learning as a result of cognitive restructuring of environment
Law of Closure
tendency to distort memory of a complete experience in order to experience it as finished
Zeigarnik Effect
tendency to remember incomplete tasks easire than complete tasks
Tolman known for?
latent learning and cognitive maps
latent learning
learning that occurs without reinforcement and does not immediately manifest itself in performance/behavior
Social learning theory
modeling, or the tendency to imitate others, accounts for most complex forms of learning
Bandura's research on modeling shows what?
1)high status models more likely imitated than low status
2)imitation more likely when perceived as similar to model
3)graded participant modeling > simple modeling/watching
Harlow known for?
nature of task can be rewarding enough, intrinsic reward.
Also, "learning how to learn" or learning set/strategy
Hull known for?
Drive reduction theory
Drive Reduction Theory
Learning is motivated by desires to reduce a drive (hunger, aggression, sex). ex. hungry rat runs father to food than satiated one
Miller and Dollard known for?
Research on learning aggressive behavior.
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
Miller and Dollard theory
avoidance gradient is stronger than approach gradient (will run faster to avoid shock than to get food).
imprinting
the very rapid attachment toward first moving object seen during "sensitive period" of development
-highly genetically organized
Yerkes-Dodson Law
1) optimal performance = higher level arousal needed simple tasks, lower for complex task
2) Inverted U relationship, regardless of task difficulty
Behavioral assessment steps
ABC model or functional analysis
Antecedents
Behaviors
Consequences
Ebbinghaus known for?
first major studies of memory, using self as subject
multi-store model of memory
3 levels
1) sensory memory (2-3 sec)
2) short-term memory/primary memory(holding tank - 5-9 pieces of info)
3) long-term memory/secondary memory - unlimited capacity
Primary memory
Short term memory (1st step to storage)
Secondary memory
long term memory (2nd step to storage)
chunking
grouping large amounts of info into smaller related units - increases amt of info that can be retained in STM
Name the components of long term memory
1) implicit or procedural - skills/conditioned responses, how to DO things
2) explicit or declarative - memory able to report or declare (not just do unconsciously as in implicit)

Types of explicit/declarative memory:
Semantic - language knowledge
Episodic - event knowledge
Serial position effect
when given a list of words, recall words frm beginning and end of list best
flashbulb memory
vivid, detailed memories of emotionally-charged events
-more accurate when of personal significance
-fade over time
anterograde amnesia
recall info prior to trauma but cannot retain any newly learned info
retrograde amnesia
failure to remember events prior to a particular trauma
Amnesia: neurologically impaired vs. others
neurologically impaired who have retrograde typically ALSO have anterograde amnesia.
Pseudodementia/psychogenic amnesics typicallly have retrograde but NOT anterograde
Schema theory of memory
Memory tend to be filtered through schemas and may be biased to fit
method of loci
associating items with visual image
Eidetic imagery means what?
photographic memory
More common in children than adults
What is most effective learning strategy for simple tasks?
Overlearning
What is best way to retain new information?
sleep following learning of new information (limits intereference)
% of sex abuse victims who later recalled abuse and factors distinguishing them?
Loftus, 19%
No factors found to distinguish those who repressed and those who remembered
feature integration theory
focused visual attention allows us to perceive an object as a whole vs. meaningless features
Name Thorndike's 3 principal laws
effect, exercise, readiness