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114 Cards in this Set

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Learning Theory
Principles of Classical (Respondent) Conditioning
Unconditioned stimulus (US): stimulus that elicits target response. Unconditioned response UR: response from an unconditioned stimulus (US). Neutral stimulus: conditioned stimulus (CS). The response to a CS is refered to as a conditioned response (CR).
Learning Theory
Principles of Classical (Respondent) Conditioning
Clsscl Cndtng usd 2 xpln emotnl responses, atituds,drg addctn, alergs, food nd sxul prfrncs nd avrsns, phbias, nd psychsomtc D/Os. Clsscl cndtng duz nt ntail acqustn of nu respns but, nsted, th cnnctn of an xsistng respns 2 a nu stmuls.
Learning Theory
Effectiveness of Classical (Respondent) Conditioning: CS-US Sequence
Clsscl cndtng ocurs whn CS preceds US. Prsntng CS b4 US rfrd 2 as FORWARD Conditioning. Ineffctvnss of BCKWRD Conditioning (US preceds CS), implies tht it is not merely contiguity (closeness btwn stimuli) tht undrlies clsscl cndtng but rathr contingency (dpnds upon). Cndtng only ocurs whn prsntn of US seems 2 dpnd on prsntn of the CS.
Learning Theory
Effectiveness of Classical (Respondent) Conditioning:
CS-US Interval
Effctvnss of clsscl cndtng affctd by temporal r/s btwn onset of CS nd onset of US: 1) DELAY conditioning vnolvs prsntng CS so tht it prceds nd ovrlps prsntn of US; 2) trace cndtng ntals prsntg nd trmntg CS prior 2 prsntng US; 3) simultaneous cndtng ocurs whn CS nd US r prsntd at sme tme. Of the 3 prcdrs, dlay cndtng most effctv 4 estblshng a CR, whl simltnus cndtng is least effctv. Whn usng dlay cndtng, optml tme ntrvl btwn onset of CS nd onset of US dpnds on natur of trgt resp - most effctv ntrvl 4 dlay cndtng is abt .05 scnds.
Learning Theory
Effectiveness of Classical (Respondent) Conditioning:
Number of Trials
Magntud nd prsistnc of CR drctly rltd 2 # of cndtng trials: grtr # of trails, strngr nd mre prsistnt the CR. Hwvr, rgrdlss of # of trials, CR typcly wkr n ntnsty or magntud thn UR.
Learning Theory
Classical Extinction
Onc CS-CR cnnctn estblshd, if CS rptdly prsntd w/o US, the CS-CR cnnctn evntuly dcays. Grdul dsapprnc of CR rsltng frm prsntn of CS alon rfrd 2 as Classiscal Extinction. 2 avoid xtnctn of clsscly cndtnd respns, occsnl "rfrshr trials" (CS paired w/US) r reqird.
Learning Theory
Spontaneous Recovery
Spontaneous Recovery dmnstrats tht a CR is not elmntd by xtnctn trials nd tht lrng is nevr lost but merely nhbtd.
Learning Theory
Stimulus Generalization
Fllwng clsscl cndtng, xrimntl sbjcts oftn not only respnd w/cndtnd respns 2 a CS but also 2 stmuli tht r simlr 2 CS. Stmuls gnrlztn not cnfnd 2 sngl modalty. Humn sbjcts cndtnd 2 respnd 2 chng n GSR (galvanis skin response) 2 sound of bell may also shw altrtn in GSR whn prsntd w/ pctur of bell or whn "bell" spkn.
Learning Theory
Stimulus Discrimination
Oppsit of stmuls gnrlztn is stmuls dscrmntn wch is th ablty 2 dscrmnt btwn simlr stimli nd respd only 2 CS w/CR. Stmuls dscrmntn estblsd thru dscrmntn trng, wch nvolvs selctv reinfrcmnt nd xtnctn. E.G, only a 500 Hz tone (CS) cnsistntly fllwd by prsntn of Meat powder (US) but tone of 400Hz nd 600Hz nvr fllwd by meat powder.
Learning Theory
Experimental Neurosis
Pavlov xplnd experimental neurosis as the rslt of cnflct btwn cortical excitation nd inhibition. His study nvolvd tchng dog 2 dscrmnt btwn circle nd ellipses. Dffclty n dscrmntng btwn th 2 dsplyd w/sx of xtrem rstlssnss, agtatn, unprvkd aggrssivnss nd othr bhvrs rsmblng thos assctd w/acute neurosis n humns.
Learning Theory
Higher-Order Conditioning
2nd neutral stimulus rptdly paird w/prvsly CS. 2nd stmuls alon evntly prducs cndtnd respns. (Initial cndtnd stmuls [CS] trtd as US, i.e., flshng lit paird w/ tone) Pavlov usd hghr-ordr cndtng 2 xpln hw cndtnd respns r acqird n absnc of US. Hghr-ordr cndtng als rfrd 2 as 2nd-ordr cndtng whn it nvolvs 2nd neutral stmuls, 3rd-ordr cndtng whn nvolvs 3rd neutral stmuls, and so on.
Learning Theory
John B Watson
"All learning the result of classical conditioning." Little Albert - White rat (US) prsntd b4 loud noise (US). Startle response (UR-CR) from loud noise (US) and also from whit rat (CS) and also othr whit furry objcts (stmuls gnrlztn).
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning: Tx Based on Counterconditioning - Reciprocal Inhibition
Thrpys drvd frm prncpls of cllscl cndtng r drctd prmrly twrd hlpng clnt 2 "unlrn" prvsly lrnd cnnctnc btwn spcfc stmuli nd crtn maldptv bhvrs (rspns). Counterconditioning pair maldptv bhvr w/ncmptbl bhvr n ordr 2 elmnt maldptv bhvr. Cntrcndtng undrlies Wolpe's tchnq, Reciprocal Inhibition, wch he usd 2 weakn nd elmnt anxty reactns. "If rspns antgnstc 2 anxty cn b md 2 ocur n prsnc of anxty-prvkng stmuli so tht it is accmpnd by cmplet or prtial supprsn of anxty rspnses, th bond btwn thes stmuli nd th anxty rspns wil b weaknd." Wolpe idntfid # of ncmptbl, mre adptv rspnses tht cn b usd 2 elmnt anxty reactns ncludng rlxtn, assrtvnss, nd sxul arousl. Undsirbl bhvr or stmuls assoctd w/CS paird w/incmpatbl respns or stmuls tht prduces it (US). Undsirbl bhvr rplcd by ncmptbl rspns.
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning: Tx Based on Counterconditioning - Four Stages of Systematic Desensitization
Most cmmly usd 2 tx anxty-rltd D/Os nd nvolvs pairng rlxtn w/hierchclly-arrngd anxty-evkng evnts. Four stgs 2 th systmtc dsnstztn prcss: Relaxation Training, Constrcting the Anxiety Hierarchy, Desensitization in Imagination, and In Vivo Desnsitization.
Learning Theory
Systematic Desensitzation - Relaxation Training
Thrpst trns clnt n sum typ of deep mscl rlxtn. Prgrssv rlxtn (cmmly usd), nvolvs systmtclly tnsng nd rlxng th body's mscl grps. Trng sessns oftn bgn w/std cue sch as tkng deep brths or syng "I'm rlxd."
Learning Theory
Systematic Desensitzation - Constrcting the Anxiety Hierarchy
Whl clnt lrng rlxtn tchnqs, clnt nd thrpst cnstrct anxty hirarchy, wch cnsists of evnts rltd 2 trgt bhvr tht r ordrd on bsis of amt of anxty evkd. 2 nsur hirarchy itms rprsnt ful rng of anxty lvls nd r equidstnt n trms of amt of anxty elcitd, Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS) may b usd (clnt rts ea evnt frm 0 [cmplt rlxtn] to 100 [hghst lvl of anxty clnt cn imgn]). Evnts slctd on bsis of clnt's rtngs so tht fnl vrsn of hirarchy cntans abt 10-15 itms.
Learning Theory
Systematic Desensitzation - Desensitization in Imagination
Rlxtn paird w/prsntn of itms n anxty hirarchy bgnng w/least anxty-evkng itm. Thrpst nstrcts cln 2 rlx usng tchnq th clnt lrnd durng 1st stg of tx. onc clnt rlxd, thrpst nstrcts clnt 2 imgn th approprt anxty hirarchy itm. Clnt sgnals thrpst whn feelng anxus, nd thrpst thn hlps clnt re-estblsh state of rlxtn. Onc clnt abl 2 imagn itm w/o xprencng anxty, nxt itm n hirarch prsntd. This prcss rptd untl clnt abl 2 imagn most anxty-arousng itm w/o xprencng anxty.
Learning Theory
Systematic Desensitzation - In Vivo Desensitization
Aftr clnt hs bn dsnstzd 2 abt 75-85% of anxty hirarchy itms, clnt bgns 2 cnfrnt anxty-arousng stuatns n vivo if fesbl 2 do so. N vivo dsnstztn is hghly strctrd nd nvolvs fcng n "real lif" only thos stuatns tht crrspnd 2 hirarchy itms tht hv bn sccssfly dsnstzd n imagntn
Learning Theory
Systematic Desensitzation - Evaluation
Usng a dismantling strategy, invstgtrs hv fnd tht nethr trng n an incmptbl rspns nor grdul xposr 2 anxty-evkng evnts is th essntl cmpont of ths tx (altho both may hv fcltatng effct). Rslts hv led sum rsrchrs 2 cnclud tht xtnctn, or xposr 2 anxty-evkng stmuli (CS) w/o xperncng feard stmuls (US), is prmry fctr respnsbl 4 benfts of systmtc dsnstztn.
Learning Theory
Tx Based on Counterconditioning
Behavioral Sex Therapy
Countrcndtng also fnd 2 b usfl 4 tx of sxul D/Os tht r rltd 2 prfrmnc anxty. N vivo tchnqs usd 2 trt D/Os rsmblng systmtc dsnstztn. Masters & Johnson's SENSATE FOCUS nvolvs pairng situatns tht evk prfrmnc anxty w/plsrbl physcl snstns nd rlxtn. Whn usng ths tchnq, prtnrs r told 2 rfrn frm gntl sx nd r gvn seres of hmwrk assgnmnts tht nvolv tkng trns at gvng nd rcvng plsr thru tuch. Initl assgnmnts ntal non-gnitl tuchng; thes r fllwd by ncresnly mre intmt ncountrs tht evntuly nclud non-dmnd gnitl tuchng.
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning- Behavioral Sex Therapy - Evaluation
Rsrch hs fnd tht sx thrpy is most effctv 4 trtng prmtur ejcltn (sqzng) nd vgnsms (rlxtn nd prgrssv dilators prvd th optml tx).
Learning Theory
Treatmnts Based on Aversive Counterconditiong
Aversive Counterconditioning
aka aversive conditoning nd aversive thrpy. Pairs trgt bhvr or stmuls assoctd w/it (CS) w/a stmuls (US) tht naturly evks an unplsnt respns. As a rslt, maldptv bhvr nd smuli rltd 2 it elict an undsirbl rspns (CR) nd r avoided.
Learning Theory
Treatments Based on Aversive Counterconditiong
In Vivo Aversion Therapy
Usd 2 tx drg addctn nd etoh addctn, cgrtt smkng, nd othr addctv bhvrs; abnrml sxul bhvrs such as fetishism, exhibitionism, nd pedophilia; nd self-injurious bhvrs. Nvolvs pairng trgt bhvr w/avrsv stmuls sch as elctrc shk, noxious odor, or emetic (nausea-inducing) drug. E.G., to elmnt sxl ftsh, ftsh objt (CS) mght b paird w/elctrc shk (US) so tht, evntly, ftsh objct is avoided b/c it prducs unplsnt senstn (CR). Du 2 prctcl nd ethcl prblms assoctd w/n vivo avrsn thrpy, it is gnrly usd only whn trgt bhvr poses grtr dngr thn th avrsv tchnq nd/or whn the bhvr hs not rspnded 2 othr txs.
Learning Theory
Treatments Based on Aversive Counterconditiong
Evaluation
Avrsn thrpy hs bn fnd 2 b modrtly effctv initly, at lst 4 sum pts nd sum prblms, esp cgrtts smkng, but it is assoctd w/hi rlaps rts nd limtd gnrlzblty. Avsrv tchnqs r mre sccssfl whn initl tx is spplmntd by "boostr" sessns nd whn avrsv stmuls or it cnsqnc is simlr 2 trgt bhvr. Avrsn thrpy mre effctv whn admnstrd n cnjnctn w/othr tx.
Learning Theory
Treatments Based on Aversive Counterconditioning
Covert Sensitization
Whn usng cvet snstztn 2 elmnt madptvr bhvr, clnts imagn (rthr thn actully cnfrnt) avrsv cndtn whl smultnsly imagng tht thy r ngagng n maldptv bhvr. To rduc cgrtt smkng, thrpst might nstrct clnts 2 imagn smkng cgrtt nd thn vsulz bcng naustd by cgrtt, thrwng up on flr nd on slvs, bcmg mbrssd, etc. Sbsqntly, 2 hlp estblsh altrntv bhvrs, thrpst mght hv clnts nvisn a "relief" scn, n wch nonsmkng is accmpnd by plsnt snsatn.
Learning Theory
Treatmnts Based on Classical Extinction
2-fctr thry of lrng poses tht dvlpmnt of phobc resp the rslt of clsscl nd oprnt cndtng: prsn 1st dvlps anxty reactn 2 neutrl stmuls (CS) whn tht stmuls is paird w/stmuls (US) tht naturly elcits anxty or othr avrsv respnses (clsscl cndtng). Prsn thn avoids prvsly neutrl stmuls b/c ths nbls prsn 2 avoid anxty (neg renfrcmnt). Tchnqs dscussd nvolv xposng clnt 2 CS w/o US whl nhbtng clnt's usul avdnc rspns. As cnsqunc, assoctn btwn cndtnd nd uncndtnd stmuli severd, nd clnt's anxty reactn to CS xtngushd.
Learning Theory
Treatments Based on Classical Extinction - In Vivo Exposure with Response Prevention (Flooding)
whn usng n vivo xposr w/rspns prvntn 2 elmnt anxty rspns, clnt xposd n "real lif" 2 anxty-arousng stmuli 4 prlngd period of tme nd prvntd frm mkng usul avdnc or othr anxty-rducng rspns. As ntrvntn 4 Obssv-Cmplsv d/o, ths tchnq rfrd 2 as n vivo xposur w/ritual prvntn nd nvolvs xposng clnt 2 obsstnl cues whl prhbtng clnt frm ngagng n usul rituals.
Learning Theory
Treatmnts Based on Classical Extinction
Implosive Therapy
lk n vivo xposr w/rspns prvntn, mplosv thrpy is bsed on asmptn tht crtn evnts (CS) r cnstntly avoided 2 rduc anxty nd tht prlngd xposr 2 thos evnts w/o US wil prduc xtnctn of anxty-rspns. Mplsv thrpy is alwys cndctd n imagntn nd nvolvs prsntng feard stmuls vivdly enuf so as 2 arous hi lvls of anxty. Stampfl (1966), dvlpr of tchnq, blevd avoidnc bhvrs r lrnd durng chldhd nd rprsnt cnflcts rltd 2 sxl or agrssv mplses. Cnsqntly, mages usd durng tx r mbelshd w/psycodynmc thems. A snake phobc clnt mght b askd 2 imagn a scen tht not only nvolvs a prsnl ncountr w/a snk but tht also mphszes th sxl syblsm of snks.
Learning Theory
Treatments Based on Classical Extinction
Graduated Exposure
nvolvs xposng clnt intily 2 situatns thr prduc minml anxty nd thn grdlly progrssng 2 thos tht evk strng anxty. Grdutd xposr hlpfl 4 rducng avoidnc nd fear tht may b causd by initl xposr 2 hi-anxty arousng situatn.
Learning Theory
Treatmnts Based on Classical oExtinction - Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
orignly dvlp as ntrvntn 4 PTSD but now also usd 2 tx variety of othr D/Os ncludng panc attcks, phobias, dprssn, nd subtnc abus. Bsed on asmptn tht xposr 2 trauma cn blok a neurophyslgcl adaptv info-prcssng mchnsm; nd it cmbns rpd latrl eye mvmnts - wch r blevd 2 trggr this mchnsm - w/xposr nd othr technqs drwn frm cgntv, bhvrl, psychdynmc apprchs. EMDR fnd 2 b effctv tx 4 PTSD, but ongng cntrvrsy is whthr benfcl effcts dpnd on eye mvmnts. Bsed on rslts of meta-anlys of resrch, cnclusn tht eye mvmnts r unncsry nd tht EMDR my b vud as an imagnal xposr thrpy.
Learning Theory
Treatments Based on Classical Extinction - In Vivo Exposure With Response Prevention (Flooding) - Evaluation
This flachcard should follow the In vivo exposure w/response prevention flashcard # 28. Findings: 1) lng, cntinus (massed) xposr 2 anxty-arousng stmuls mre effctv thn brf (spcd) xposrs. Sum evdnc tht xposr of shrt duratn cn actuly ncres senstvty 2 feard stmuli; 2) Hi-anxty provctn durng xposr may not b ncssry 4 sccssfl tx outcm. Sum nvstgtrs hv fnd tht simultnus use of trnqulzr, wch lwrs anxty, cn actuly nhnc effctvnss of xposr; 3) slf-cntrlld xposr 2 feard stmuls (fllwng trng by thrpst) cn b as effctv a thrpst-cntrlld xposr, at lst 4 lss sevre cases; nd xposr w/n a grp cn b as effctv as indv tx. and 4) Xposr 2 dstrssng stmuls nd rspns prvntn r both essntl cmponts of tx.
Learning Theory
Principles of Operant Conditioning
Edward Thorndike
Known 4 his blef tht th study of lrng n lwr anmals wud rvel mprtnt nfo abt humn lrng. Frm his "puzzle box" study, thorndike cnclud tht lrng not du 2 mntl evnts, or thnkng abt a prblm, but cnsqunc of trial-nd-error frm wch he rfrs to as instrumental learning. He dvlpd svral bsic laws of lrng, most mprtnt is LAW of EFFECT- any rspns fllwd by "a satsfyng state of affrs" lkly 2b rplcatd, whl any act tht rslts n "annoyng state of affrs" wil b lss lkly 2 recur. Ltr sggstd whl postv cnsquncs incres bhvr, neg cnsqncs oftn hv lttl or no effct.
Learning Theory
Principles of Operant Conditioning
BF Skinner
Agreed w/Pavlov tht bhvr (rflxes) r autmtcly elcitd by crtn stmuli. Hwvr, blevd tht most cmplx bhvrs r oprnt bhvrs tht r vluntrly emitd as rslt of way thy oprat on envrmnt (bhvrs vlntrly emitd as rslt of cnsquncs tht fllw thm.
Learning Theory
Principles of Operant Conditioning - BF Skinner Reinforcement
Xtntn of Thrndk's law of effct. Envrmnt prvds orgnsm w/varity of postv nd ngtv cnsquncs, nd thes cnsquncs caus orgnsms to dsply or wthld bhvrs tht preceded thm. Rnfrcmnts & Punshmnt cn b postv or neg but not synyms w/"good & bad" or "plsnt nd unplsnt," nsted pstv rfrs 2 applctn of stmuls, whl neg mens wthldng or rmvng stmuls. Rnfrcmnt ncreses bhvr it fllws. W/Pstv rnfrcmnt, prfrmnc of bhvr ncreses as rslt of applctn of stmuls (rnfrcr) fllwng bhvr. W/ngtv rnfrcmnt, bhvr ncreses as rslt of wthdrwl or trmntn of stmuls (rnfrcr). (E.g., whn prssng lvr stps elctrc shk, lvr prssng bhvr wil ncres b/c it's ngtvly rnfrcd.
Learning Theory
Principles of Operant Conditioning - BF Skinner
Punishment
Cn b pstv or ngtv but unlk rnfrcmnt, pnshmnt dcreses bhvr it fllws. Pstv Pnshmnt ocurs whn applctn of stmuls fllwng rspns dcreses tht rspns. Spnk dg w/papr aftr chwng nu shus n ordr 2 mk dg stp. Ngtv Pnshmnt ocurs whn stmuls rmvd fllwng bhvr nd, as rslt, bhvr dcreses - rmv allwnc 4 bcktlk n ordr 2 dcres bhvr. Sknnr Bx - usd 2 evluat strngth of oprnt cndtng: 1) rate of rspndng durng acqustn of trials nd/or 2) totl # of rspnses nd durng xtnctn trials (period whn no rnfrcmnt prvded.
Learning Theory
Principles of Operant Conditioning - BF Skinner
Operant Extinction
Xtnctn rfrs 2 wthldng rnfrcmnt frm prvsly rnfrcd bhvr n ordr 2 dcres or elmnt tht bhvr. Xprmnts on oprnt xtnctn dmnstrtd tht wthdrwl of rnfrcr duz not usuly caus immed cssatn of respns. Ntsd, rspns dsapprs grduly aftr an inital phaz n wch rspndng is mre varibl nd frcfl. E.G., tmpry ncres n rspndng durng xtnctn trial calld xtnctn (rspns) brst. Whn sbjct rnfrcd 4 two dffrnt bhvrs nd rnfrcmnt 4 one bhvr is withdrwn n ordr 2 xtngush it, othr bhvr lkly 2 ncreses. Ths rfrd 2 Bhvrl Cntrst.
Learning Theory
Principles of Operant Conditioning - BF Skinner Primary v Secondary Reinforcers
Prmry (uncndtnd)rnfrcrs r nhrntly dsrbl nd do nt dpnd on xprenc 2 acqur thr rnfrcng vlu. (exmpls r food & water). Scndry (cndtnd) rnfrcrs acqur thr vlu only thru rptd assctn w/prmry rnfrcrs. Tokens, applause, nd gold stars r cnsdrd scndry rnfrcrs. Whn cndtnd rnfrcrs paird w/svrl dffrnt prmry rnfrcrs, it is calld gnrlzd cndtnd rnfrcrs. $ is a gnrlzd rnfrcr b/c it cn b xchngd 4 varity of prmry rnfrcrs.
Learning Theory
Principles of Operant Conditioning - BF Skinner Schedules of Reinforcement
N oprnt cndtng, tmng of cnsqunc mprtnt: immed rnfrcrs (nd pnshmnts) r alwys mre effctv thn dlayd. Effctvnss of pstv rnfrcmnt dtrmnd by schdl on wch dlvrd. Rate of acqustn of bhvr fstst whn bhvr rnfrcd on CONTINUOUS SCHEDULE (whn rnfrcmnt prsntd aftr ea rspns). Hwvr, b/c SATIATION nd rate of xtnctn r als hi 4 cntnus schdl, onc oprnt bhvr acqurd (onc adqute oprnt strnght achvd), bst wy 2 mntain bhvr is 2 swtch 2 ntrmttnt (prtial) schdl. Sknnr dstngushd btwn 4 INTERMITTENT SCHEDULES: Fixed Intervals (FI), Variable Intervals (VI), Fixed Ratios (FR), nd Variable Ratiios (VR).
Learning Theory
Principles of Operant Conditioning - BF Skinner
Fixed Intervals
FI: sbjct rnfrcd aftr fxd period of tm rgrdlss of # of rspnses md. Rat on FI-30 scdl = rnfrcmnt rcvd evry 30 scnds whthr it mks 1 or 500 rspnses durng 30-scnd period. FI schdls tnd 2 prduc lw rates of rspndng snc # of rspnses unrltd 2 dlvry of rnfrcmnt. sbjct on FI schdl typcly stp rspndng al2gthr aftr rnfrcmnt dlvrd nd thn bgn rspndng agn twrd end of rnfrcmnt ntrvl. E.g., an FI schdl (hrly/wkly wage) tnds 2 prduc mniml lvls of wrk.
Learning Theory
Principles of Operant Conditioning - BF Skinner
Variable Interval
VI: ntrvl of tm btwn dlvry of rnfrcrrs vares n unprdctbl mnnr. A VI-30 schdl = avrg lngth of tm btwn rnfrcrs is 30 scnds. Sbjct mght b rnfrcd aftr 15, 40, 30, 20 nd 45 scnds. Sbjcts on VI schdl rspnd at stedy, but lw rate. ths typ schdl usd whn tchr spcfys tht a # of "pop" quzzs wil b gvn durng smstr but xact # of quzzs unknwn.
Learning Theory
Principles of Operant Conditioning - BF Skinner Fixed Ratio
FR rnfrcr dlvrd ea tm th sbjct mks spcfc # of rspnses. FR-6 scdl= rnfrcr gvn aftr evry 6th rspns. W/FR scdl, th r/s btwn rspndng nd rnfrcmnt is xplct. FR schdl prduc hi, stedy rate of rspndng, usully w/bref paus fllwng dlvry of rnfrcmnt. Piece wrk xmpl of FR schdl.
Learning Theory
Principles of Operant Conditioning - BF Skinner
Variable ratio
VR: rnfrcrs prvded aftr varbl # of rspnses. VR-20 schdl = avrg # of rspnses rcvd wil be 20, but exact # wil vary frm rnfrcr to rnfrcr. R/s btwn rspndng nd rnfrcmnt unprdctbl. VR scdls prduc hghst rate of rspnses nd r th most rsistnt 2 xtnctn. Xmple of VR is Slot Machine.
Learning Theory
Principles of Operant Conditioning - BF Skinner
Concurrent Schedule of Reinforcement
Nvolvs prvdng 2 or mre simultnus nd indpndnt schdls of rnfrcmnt, ea 4 a dffrnt rspns. Th crrspndnc btwn rspndng to 2 or mre altrntvs nd th frquncy of rnfrcmnt 4 rspndng is prdctd by "mtchng law."
Learning Theory
Principles of Operant Conditioning - BF Skinner Superstitious Behavior
Accdntl noncntngnt rnfrcmnt cn lead 2 suprstitus bhvr. Sknnr rnfrcd pigeons w/food evry 15 scnds rgdlss of wht thy wer dng. As a rslt, pgns bgan 2 dsply varity of odd, rtualstc-lk bhvrs just b4 dlvry of rnfrcmnt.
Learning Theory
Principles of Operant Conditioning - BF Skinner Stimulus Control
Red light & Green light. pigeon rnfrcd 4 peckng key whn grn lght on but not rnfrcd whn red lght on. Grn lght bcums pstv dscrmntv stmuls. Grn lght sgnals tht rnfrcmnt wil ocur as cnsqunc of a gvn rspns. Red lght is ngtv dscrmntv stmuls b/c it sgnals th rspns wil not b rnfrcd. Whn th ocurnc of bhvr affctd by prsnc of dscrmntv stmuls, bhvr said 2 b undr STIMULUS CONTROL. Stmuls Cntrl anthr xmpl of 2-fctr lrng. Prfrmnc of trgt bhvr du 2 oprnt cndtng: orgnsm prfrms bhvr b/c it hs bn rnfrcd 4 dng so. Prfrmnc of bhvr n prsnc of pstv dscrmntv stmuls but not n prsnc of ngtv dscrmntv stmuls th rslt of clsscl cndtng (dscrmntn trng). Stmuls Cntrl xplns why orgnsm ngags n crtn bhvrs n sum situatns but not n othrs.
Learning Theory
Principles of Operant Conditioning - BF Skinner Stimulus Control-Behavior Chain-Chaining
Sknnr rfrd 2 sequnc of dscrmntv stmuls-bhvr-cnsqunc as th 3-term cntngncy nd blevd it accunts 4 acqustn of most cmplx bhvrs, ncludng "Behavior Chains." A bhvr chain cnsists of # of dstnct rspnses w/ea rspns (or stmuls assoctd w/it) srvng as both scndry rnfrcrs 4 prvius rspns nd a pstv dscrmntv stmuls 4 nxt rspns: th finl rspns n chain usuly fllwd by prmry rnfrcr. Mkng a cake (from begining to end) and thn eatng it is xmple of bhvr chain. Estblshng a bhvr chn rfrd 2 as CHAINING wch cn be eithr frwrd or bckwrd. Fwrd chng bgns w/frst cmpont n chn nd grduly wrks thru ntre chn. Bckwrd chn, whn cmponts of chn r estblshd n rvrs ordr.
Learning Theory
Principles of Operant Conditioning - BF Skinner Stimulus and Response Generalization
Stmuls Gnrlztn n oprnt cndtng ocurs whn simlr stmuli elcit same rspns. N oprnt cndtng, hwvr, stmuli tht evok th rspns r pstv dscrmntv stmuli. If pgn lrnd tht pckng a ky n prsnc of grn lght rslts n rnfrcmnt nd thn als pcks th key whn a blu lght is on, stmuls gnrlztn hs ocurd. Rnfrcmnt of rspns not only ncreses ocurnc of tht spcfc rspns but als th frqunc of simlr rspnses. A chld hu hs bn rnfrcd 4 calng his fthr "dada" my b mre lkly 2 als say "baba," "mama," nd "gaga" n prsnc of fthr. ths is cald rspns gnrlztn.
Learning Theory
Principles of Operant Conditioning - BF Skinner Escape & Avoidance Conditioning
Neg rnfrcmnt most asscitd w/an ncres n 2 typs of bhvr - escap bhvr nd avdnc bhvr. Escap bhvr th rslt of ESCAPE CONDITIONING n wch bhvr ncreses b/c its prfrmnc allws orgnsm 2 escap a neg rnfrcr. Estblshmnt of avdnc rspns th rslt of 2-fctr lrng. N AVOIDANCE CONDITIONING, onset of neg rnfrcr preceded by a cue (pstv dscrmntv stmuls), wch sgnals tht neg rnfrcr abt 2 b applied. Orgnsm lrns tht if it prfrms trgt bhvr n prsnc of cue, it cn avoid neg rnfrcr al2gthr. E.G.. rat lrns tht 1) grn lght sgnals tht elctrc shk abt 2 b dlvrd (clsscl cndtng) nd 2) tht it cn avoid shk by jmpng ovr hrdl (neg rnfrcmnt). As a rslt, rat jmps ovr hrdl as soon as grn lght trnd on and thrby avoids th shk.
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning - Increasing Behavior With Reinforcement: Contingency & Immediacy
Most bhvrl tx rely on pstv rnfrcmnt nd its effctvness nfluncd by # of fctrs: CONTINGENCY: Must b cntngnt r/s btwn trgt bhvr nd pstv rnfrcr. Rnfrcr s/b avlbl only whn trgt bhvr hs bn prfrmd. IMMEDIACY: To mxmiz bnfts of pstv rnfrcmnt, rnfrcr s/b dlvrd immdtly aftr trgt bhvr. Ths is prtculrly mprtnt whn rnfrcmnt is bng usd 2 est nu bhvr.
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning - Increasing Behavior With Reinforcement: Magnitude & Schedule of Reinforcement
MAGNITUDE: Grtr th mgntud of rnfrcr, th grtr its effctvnss (up2 a point). Pst tht point, SATIATION cn ocur so tht rnfrcr loses its rnfrcng valu. Prmry rnfrcrs mre suscptbl 2 satiatn thn scndry rnfrcrs, esp gnrlzd scndry rnfrcrs. SCHEDULE of RENFORCEMENT: Estblshmnt of nu bhvr most rapid whn rnfrcmnt appld on cntinus schdl, whl mtce of bhvr (rsistnc 2 xtnctn) is mximzd whn bhvr is rnfrcd on ntrmttnt schdl. Cnsqntly, bst prcdur is to frst use cntinus schdl rnfrcmnt nd onc bhvr is wel-est, 2 chng 2 ntrmttnt schdl. Prcss of rducng proprtn of rnfrcmnts rfrd 2 as THINNING.
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning - Increasing Behavior With Reinforcement: Verbal Clarification & Prompts
VERBAL CLARIFICATION: effctvnss of rnfrcmnt nhncd whn cntngnt r/s btwn bhvr nd rnfrcr vrblly clrfyd. PROMPTS: Vrbl nd/or phys prmpts facltat acqustn of nu bhvr. Whn prmpt sgnals tht bhvr wil b rnfrcd, it's actng as pstv dscmntn stmuls. Xmpl- whn fthr tels chld 2 cln rm nd prazs chld aftrwrd, fthr's nstrctn is dscmntv stmuls tht sgnals praz wil fllw bhvr. Grdul rmvl of prmpt rfrrd 2 as FADING.
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning - Increasing Behavior With Reinforcement: Shaping
Whn usng rnfrcmnt 2 ncres rspns, it's ncssry 2 wait 4 rspns 2 b emtd n ordr 2 rnfrc it. Trgt bhvr one tht rarely or nvr ocurs naturly. SHAPING cn b usd - nvolvs rnfrcng sccssv apprxmtns 2 dsrd bhvr; prvdng rnfrcmnt only 2 bhvrs tht cum clsr nd clsr 2 dsrd bhvr. Shpng sumtms usd erronusly nd cnfusd w/chaining. Whl both cn b usd 2 dvlp nu bhvrs, n shpng, only fnl (trmnl) bhvr is of ntrst, whl n chning, ntre sequnc of rspnses mprtnt. Estbshmnt of cmplx bhvrs my rqur cmbntn of shpng nd chning, W/shpng bng usd 2 estblsh ea rspns n bhvr chn.
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning - Increasing Behavior With Reinforcement: Premack Principle
Whn usng PREMACK PRINCIPLE, hi prbablty bhvr usd 2 rnfrc lw prbablty bhvr n ordr 2 ncres th frqunc of lw prbablty bhvr. Thrpst wud b usng Prmk Prncpl 2 ncres amt of tm stdnt spnds stdyng. Aftr lrng tht stdnt frquntly wtchs TV, she tels stdnt 2 wtch tv only aftr stdyng 4 at lst 1 hr. Wtchng tv (hi prbablty bhvr) bng usd 2 rnfrc stdyng (lw prbablty bhvr) n ordr 2 ncres stdy tm. Prmk Prncpl usfl whn it's dffclt 2 ID stmuls tht wud act as rnfrcr 4 prtculr clnt.
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning - Increasing Behavior With Reinforcement: Differential Reinforcment
Whn usng dffrntl rnfrcmnt, all bhvrs xcpt trgt bhvr r pstvly rnfrcd. B/c dffntl rnfrcmnt als nvolvs wthldng rnfrcmnt fllwng a bhvr, it's actuly cmbntn of pstv rnfrcmnt nd xtnctn. E.g., gv chld pennies or tokens 2 ply w/toys n ordr to hv chld stp sterotypcl hnd mvmnts. Svrl varites of dffrntl rnfrcmnt: dffrntl rnfrcmnt of incmpatbl bhvrs (DRI), dffrntl rnfrcmnt of altrntv bhvrs (DRA) nd dffrntl rnfrcmnt of othr bhvrs (DRO).
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning- Decreasing Behavior With Punishment
Punshmnt nvolvs applyng or wthdrwng stmuls fllwng bhvr n ordr 2 dcres tht bhvr. Effctvnss of pnshmnt nfluncd by: Immediacy, Consistency, Intensity, Verbal Clarification, Removal of All Positive Reinforcements, and Reinforcement for Alternative Behaviors.
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning- Decreasing Behavior With Punishment - Immediacy, Consistency & Intensity
IMMEDIACY: soonr pnshmnt admnstrd, mre sccssfl it wil b. Pnshmnt s/b appld at onset of bhvr; i.e., at bginng of th chain. CONSISTENCY: To b sccssfl, pnshmnt mst b appld on cntinus schdl; i.e., shud fllw ea prfrmnc of trgt bhvr. INTENSITY: Pnshmnt usuly most effctv whn initaly appld n modrtn. Whn pnshmnt too strng, mre lkly 2 prduc avdnc, aggrsv, nd othr undsrbl bhvrs. Whn initaly admnstrd n weak form nd thn grduly ncresd n ntnsty, HABITUATION cn ocur (i.e., pnshmnt loses its effctvnss.
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning- Decreasing Behavior With Punishment - Verbal Clarification, Removal of All Positive Reinforcement & Reiforcement for Alternative Behaviors
VERBAL CLARIFICATION: effcts of pnshmnt mximzd whn cntngnt r/s btwn trgt bhvr nd pnshmnt vrblly clrfid. REMOVAL of ALL POSITVE REINFORCMENT: pnshmnt wrks bst whn all stmuli tht prvusly rnfrcd bhvr r idntfd nd cnsistntly wthld at sam tm bhvr bng punshd. REINFORCEMNT for ALTERNATIVE BEHAVIORS: b/c pnshmnt only tches prsn wht not 2 do, its effctvnss ncreses sbstntlly whn cmbnd w/rnfrcmnt fr altrntv bhvrs. Als mprtnt 2 dtrmn if undsrbl bhvr du 2 nadqut skils; if so, pnshmnt mst b accmpnd by trng n thos skils.
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning- Decreasing Behavior With Punishment - Evaluation
Use of pnshmnt 2 dcres maldptv bhvrs hs bn crtczd on ethcl, lgl, nd practcl grnds. sum authrtys cnsdr use of pnshmnt nd othr avrsv tchnqs 2 b unethcl n all cses; othrs blev thr use is jstfid only whn othr tx hv bn neffctv nd/or whn trgt bhvr mre hrmfl th tx. N sum situatns, use of avrsv tchnqs illgl.
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning- Decreasing Behavior With Punishment - Verbal Reprimands
E.G., syng "no!" or "Stop!" r usd 2 spprss unwntd bhvrs n a vrity of sttngs. Thr effcts r ncnsistnt, hwvr, nd n sum situatns, rprmnds act as pstv rnfrcrs nd ncres trgt bhvr. Als, effcts of rprmnds lkly 2 b tmprary if thy r not bckd-up or fllwd by othr cnsqncs (e.g., tme out)
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning- Decreasing Behavior With Punishment - Overcorrection
form of pstv pnshmnt tht ntails applyng pnlty fllwng undsrbl bhvr n ordr 2 elmnt it. Ovrcrrctn ncmpsses 2 prcdurs nd its use may ncrprt one or both of thm: Restitution nvolvs hvng indvs crrct any neg effcts of thr bhvrs. Pstv practc rqurs suprvsn nd/or manully guidng indvs thru crrctv bhvrs (phys guidnc). It's usuly most effctv whn crrctv bhvrs r topogrphcly rltd 2 the msbhvr. Xmpl: mntly rtrded prsn is dsrptv & thrws objcts nd ovrtrns bed. Prsn rqurd 2 stratn entir rm (restitution) nd thn prctc mre dsrbl bhvr such as mk up all beds on th ward (positive practice).
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning- Decreasing Behavior With Punishment - Response Cost
applctn of neg pnshmnt nd nvolvs rmvng spcfc rnfrcr ea tm trgt bhvr prfrmd. Altho rspns cst most cmmnly assctd w/token economies (n wch token fines r mposd 4 undsrbl bhvr), it cn b usd whnvr th cntrl of pstv rnfrcrs is pssbl. Prnt cud use rspns cst 2 rduc msbhvr of chld by tkng awy chld's tv prvlgs 4 spcfc period of tm or by dcresng chld's allwnc by spcfc amt ea tm chld ngags n undsrbl bhvr. Othr xmpls of rspns cst ncluds fines 4 trffc violtns nd lte fees 4 pyng crdt crd bils or filng incm tx aftr du dte.
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning- Decreasing Behavior With Punishment - Time-Out From Reinforcement
Time out nvolvs rmvng all srcs of pos rnfrcmnt 4 brf prscrbd period of tme fllwng bhvr n ordr 2 dcres th bhvr. A tchr wud b usng tim-out 2 elmnt stdnt's dsrptv bhvrs if tchr plces stdnt n partitnd-off crnr of rm for 5 minuts ea tim stdnts is dsruptv. Tim-out usuly clssfd as typ of neg pnshmnt but sum cnsdr it form of xtnctn. Hwvr, xtnctn ntails cntinus rmvl of rnfrcr frm prviusly rnfrcd rspns, whl tim-out nvolvs rmvng all srcs of rnfrcmnt 4 spcfc period of tim fllwng bhvr tht may or may not hv bn estblsh or maintnd by rnfrcmnt.
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning- Decreasing Behavior With Punishment - Evaluation
Sum rsrchrs sggst tht durtn of tim-out is nt critcl nd tht shrt tim-outs r as effctv as lngr ones (5-10 minuts usuly optml). Lik othr forms of pnshmnt, tim-out most effctv whn cmbnd w/rnfrcmnt 4 altrntv bhvrs. Its effctvnss als ncresd whn tim-out bgns w/brf xplntn of why it is bng appld.
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning- Decreasing Behavior With Extinction
oprnt xtnctn ntails w/hldng rnfrcmnt from a prviusly rnfrcd rspns n ordr 2 elmnt or dcres tht rspns. Effctvnss of xtnctn nfluncd by 4 fctrs: Consistncy, Schedule of Reinforcement, Magnitude and Duration of Reinforcement, and Reinforcement for Other Behaviors.
Learning Theory
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning- Decreasing Behavior With Extinction - Consistency
4 xtnctn 2 b effctv, pstv rnfrcmnt must b cnsistntly w/hld fllwng bhvr snc a sngl xcptn cn restblsh bhvr nd maintn it 4 cnsdrbl lngth of tme. B/c it is oftn dffclt 2 ID nd cnsistntly w/hld all srces of rnfrcmnt, xtnctn cn als b slow, frstrtng prcss.
Learning Theory Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning- Decreasing Behavior With Extinction - Schedule of Reinforcement
schdl of rnfrcmnt tht prviusly estblshd nd maintnd th bhvr affcts rate of xtnctn. Xtnctn mre rapid whn bhvr hs bn rnfrcd on cntinus schdl thn on ntrmttnt one, nd, of th ntrmttnt schdls, whn varibl or fxd ntrvl schdl was usd.
Learning Theory Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning- Decreasing Behavior With Extinction - Mgntud & Duratn of Rnfrcment, Rnfrcmnt 4 Othr Bhvrs.
Mgntud & duratn of rnfrcmnt = th grtr th mgntud nd the lngr th duratn of prvuis rnfrcmnt, th mre rsistnt th bhvr 2 xtnctn. Rnfrcmnt 4 Othr Bhvrs = lk pnshmnt, xtnctn most sccssfl whn it is usd n cnjnctn w/rnfrcmnt 4 altrntv bhvrs.
Learning Theory Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning- Modifying Behavior with Contingncy Contracts
Cntngncy Cntrct a typ of cntngcy mgmnt tht nvolvs frml wrttn agrmnt btwn 2 or mre peop (e.g., btwn thrpst nd clnt, prnt nd chld, tchr nd stdnts) tht clrly dfines th bhvrs tht r 2 b mdfyd nd th rwrds nd punshmnts tht wil fllw prfrmnc of thos bhvrs. Bhvrl chng may b rqurd by one or all prtes 2 th cntrct. Cntngncy cntrct btwn thrpst nd clnt, e.g., wud rqur bhvr chng by clnt only, whl cntrct btwn spouses wud rqur bhvr chng by both prtes. Accrdng 2 Stuart & Lott (1972), 5 elmnts ncssry 2 nsur effctv cntngncy cntrct: 1) cntrct must b xplcit n dfinng wht ea prty wil rcv as rslt of metng thr rspnsblitys; 2) bhvrs ncluded n th cntrct must b cpbl of bng mnitord; 3) systm of sanctns 4 falur 2 meet th cntrct's trms s/b dfnd; 4) cntrct shud dfn bonuses 4 cnsistnt cmplnc w/trms of cntrct; 5) rcrd-kpng systm s/b estblshd 2 prvd cnstnt fdbck 2 prtes abt th frquncy of trgt bhvrs nd th dlvry of rnfrcrs. Cntngcy cntrcts r als most effctv whn th prsn huz bhvr is 2 b mdfyd actvly prtcipts n dvlpmnt of contct.
Learning Theory Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning- Modifying Behavior with Token Economy
Tkn Ecnmy is a strcturd nvrmnt n wch dsrbl bhvrs r ncresd by rnfrcng thm w/tkns (gnrlyzd cndtnd rnfrcrs) tht cn b xchngd 4 dsrd itms, actvtys, nd othr bck-up (uncndtnd) rnfrcrs, whl undsrbl bhvrs r dcresed by w/hldng or rmvng tkns fllwng thos bhvrs. Estblshmnt of tkn ecnmy nvolvs 1) dfnng trgt bhvr; 2) slctng cndtnd nd bck-up rnfrcrs; 3) dvlpng systm 4 mntorng nd assessng tkn ecnmy; 4) dvlpng pln 4 rducng nd thn elmntng ("thnng") th rnfrcrs. Tkn ecmny assctd w/svrl advntgs. 1st thy prmt immed dlvry of rnfrcmnt; scnd, tkn ecnmes cn b tailrd 2 meet indv neds by allwng prsns 2 slct thr own bck-up rnfrcrs; 3rd b/c tkns cn b xchngd 4 varity of rnfrcrs, thy als r lss suscptbl 2 satiatn thn prmry rnfrcrs.
Learning Theory Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning- Modifyng Behavior with Social Skills Training
Socl skls trng (SST) usd 2 mprov cmmnctn, assrtvnss, prblm-slvng; jb ntrvw nd mtce, nd othr soclly adaptv skls. Clssfyd as typ of bhvr mdfctn nd ncrprts tchnqs drivd frm oprnt nd clsscl cndtng as wel as socl lrng thry. Spcfc tchnqs nclud modlng, cochng, bhvrl rhrsl, fdbck, rnfrcmnt, nd hmwrk assgnmnts. Evdnc tht SST usfl 4 rducng sx, dcrsng rsk 4 rlps, nd mrpvng scl adjmnt of clnts w/ schzophrnia nd mprvng th bhvr of chldrn w/cndct prblms. Benfts of SST may b nhncd whn ntrvntn bgns w/idntfctn nd crrctn of dfcits n scl prcptns.
Learning Theory
Cognitive Learning Theories
Latent Learning
Tolman viewd lrng as "purposive," or orientd towrd achvmnt of spcfc gols, nd he prposd tht lrng oftn taks plc w/o bng mnifstd n prfrmnc mprvmnts. Tolman blevd lrng cn b latent. Orig study on Latent Lrng had 3 grps of rats run maz onc a day 4 svrl wks: grp A alwys found food n th maz's gol box; grp B nvr found food; nd grp C found no food untl th 11th day nd sbsqunt days. Durng 1st 10 days, grp A outprfrmd grp B nd grp C, hu prfrmd simlrly. Hwvr, aftr 11th day, prfrmnc of grp C was superior 2 grp A. Tolman cncluded grp C lrnd sumthng abt maz durng 1st 10 days - rats had formed "cogntv maps" - w/o rnfrcmnt. He rgud tht thes rslts shw tht latent lrng duz ocur nd tht rnfrcmnt, whl an mprtnt fctr n th prfrmnc of a rspns, is nt ncssry 4 th lrng of tht rspns.
Learning Theory
Cognitive Learning Theories
Insight
Gestalt psychlgy ncluds modl of lrng tht ncrprts th rol of ntrnl cgntv prcsses. Modl undrlys series of studys cndctd by Kohler (1925). N one study, Kohler gav cagd chmpnz 2 stiks tht culd b joind 2gthr 2 mk a lngr stik. A banna, plcd outsid th cage, culd b rchd only whn stiks wer joind. Aftr sevrl unsccssfl attmpts 2 get banna w/one stik, chmpnz pausd 4 bref momnt nd thn sddnly joind stiks 2 gthr nd usd thm 2 rch banna. Kohler rgud tht this bhvr dmnstrts tht lrng cn b rslt of INSIGHT, nd prposd tht insight rflcts an ntrnl cogntv rstrctrng of prcptual field (nvrmnt) tht nhnces th orgnsm's ablty 2 achv its gol.
Learning Theory
Cognitive Learning Theories
Observational (Social) Learning
Bandura's (1986) thry of obsrvtnl lrng prposes tht, by smply obsrvng a modl prfrm a bhvr, a persn cn lrn tht bhvr nd sbsqntly prfrm it w/o xtrnl rnfrcmnt. Bandura's bst knwn stdys r thos n wch chldrn obsrvd an adlt modl act agrssvly twrd an nflatd clwn ("bobo") doll. Whn ltr lft alon, w/doll, chldrn dsplyd simlr agrssv bhvrs twrd doll, whl chldrn hu hd nt viewd th modl did nt xhbt such bhvrs. Basd on rslts of rsrch, Bandura cncluded tht obsrvtnl lrng rflcts an altrtn n cogntn nvolvng 4 dffrnt prcsses: Attentional, Retention, Production and Motivational processes.
Learning Theory
Cognitive Learning Theories
Observational (Social) Learning - Attentional & Retention Processes
Attntl prcsses - obsrvtnl lrng rquirs tht th lrnr attnd 2 nd accurtly prcv th modled bhvr. Rtntn prcsses - rpdctn of modled bhvr rquirs tht lrnr symblcly prcss th modled bhv n memry via vsul imagry or vrbl codng. Rtntn nhncd thru cgntv rhrsl.
Learning Theory Cognitive Learning Theories
Observational (Social) Learning - Production & Motivational Processes
Prdctn prcsses - lrnr must b abl 2 accurtly rprduc nd rhrs modled bhvr. Prdctn enhncd thru prctc nd prfrmnc fdbck. Mtvtnl prcsses - whl lrng of bhvr cn ocur w/o rnfrcmnt, prfrmnc of bhvr rquirs mtvtn. Mtvtn nhncd whn lrnr rnfrcd, but rnfrcmnt cn b ethr ntrnl (slf-rnfrcmnt), vicarus, or xtrnl.
Learning Theory Cognitive Learning Theories
Observational (Social) Learning
Obsrvtnl lrng usfl not only 4 tchng nu bhvrs but als 4 nchncng or nhbtng xstng bhvrs. 4 xstng bhvrs, obsrvtnl lrng hs bn sccssfly usd 2 alleviat crtn typs of phbias. Obsrvtnl lrng most effctv whn it is cmbnd w/gided prtcptn, wch cnsists of prgrssv prfrmnc by th lrnr w/asstnc frm modl. N stdy nvstgtng use of obsrvtnl lrng 4 tx of snak phbia, it was found tht live modlng w/guided participation (aka participant modeling) ws suprior 2 symblc modlng (obsrvtn of filmd modl) or systmtc dsnstztn. Sum rsrch sggst tht th grtr effctvnss of prtcpnt modlng du 2 th snse of slf-efficacy (prsnl mstry) tht is provided by sccssfl prfrmnc of trgt rspnses. Sccss of obsrvtnl lrng affctd by modl's chrctrstcs: obsrvrs r mre lkly 2 imitat a modl whn modl is of hi status, prsteg or xprtes nd is prcvd 2 b simlr 2 obsrvr; whn modl's bhvr is vsibl, salient, nd rlevnt 2 obsrvr's neds nd gols; nd whn modl hs bn rnfrcd 4 ngagng n th bhvr (vicarus rnfrcmnt). N addtn, multpl modls r mre effctv thn sngl modl. Whn modlng usd 2 tx phbc reactns, copng modls, hu initlly xhbt apprhnsn but thn ovrcm thr fears nd prfrm th dsrd bhvr, r mre effctv thn mastry modls, hu intilly ngag n th bhvr w/o fear.
Learning Theory Cognitive Learning Theories
Learned Helplessness
a modl tht is not a gnrl thry of lrng but applys spcfclly 2 cgntv prcsses assctd w/dprssn. Lrnd hlplssnss rfrs 2 tndncy 2 gv up any effrt 2 cntrl evnts n th nvrnmnt. It was 1st obsrvd n anmls tht hd bn xpsd 2 uncntrllbl elctrc shck nd sbsqntly did not try 2 escap whn it ws pssbl 2 du so. Lrnd hlplssnss ws thn sggstd as an etiolgcl fctr n sum forms of dprssn. Accrdbg 2 th "rfrmultd vrsn" of lrnd hlplssnss modl, dprssn ocurs whn prsn mks ntrnl, stbl, nd globl attrbutns abt neg evnts. Dprssd peop attrbut th caus of neg evnts 2 thmslvs, blev tht thy wil alwys caus neg evnts 2 hppn 2 thm, nd thnk thy caus negtvty n all aspcts of thr lives. Mre rcntly, lrnd hlplssnss mdl rvisd nd acknwldgs th rol of attrbutns n dprssn but prposes tht attrbutns r mprtnt only 2 xtnt 2 wch thy cntrbut 2 prsn's snse of hopelessness.
Learning Theory Cognitive Learning Theories
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies
Approach for cgntv-bhvrl tx differ n mny ways but share sevrl asumptns: 1) indvs rspnd 2 cgntv rprsntns of evnts rthr thn 2 evnts thmslvs; 2) lrng is cgntvly mediated; 3) cgntn mediats emtnl nd bhvrl dysfnctn; 4) at lst sum typs of cgntn cn b monitrd nd altrd; 5) dysfnctnl emtns nd bhvrs chng whn cgntns r modfyd; 6) bhvrl nd cgntv tchnqs r both usfl nd cn b ntgrtd.
Learning Theory
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
REBT's prspctv is bhvr is a chain of evnts - A, B, nd C - where A is xtrnl evnt 2 wch indv is xposd; B is th blef th indv hs abt A; nd C is th emotn or bhvr tht rslts frm B. An emtnl or bhvrl rspns 2 an xtrnl evnt is du 2 blefs abt evnt rthr thn 2 evnt itslf. Accrdng 2 Ellis, prmry caus of nurosis is th cntnul rptitn of crtn cmmn irrtnl blefs sch as blef tht it is ncssry 2 b lovd by evryon or th blef tht one s/b thoroly cmptnt, ntllgnt, nd achvng n all rspcts. Irrtnl blefs r chrctrzd by dgmtc dmnds (must and shoulds), awfulzng, (it's awfl if...), low frstrtn tlrnc, nd ngtv evluatns of onslf nd othrs (i'm/she's wrthlss). N REBT, 2 mre evnts - D nd E - r added 2 ABC chain: D is thrpst's attmpt 2 altr indv's irrtnl blefs, nd E is th altrntv thots nd blefs tht rslt frm D. 2 hlp clnts rplc irrtnl blefs w/mre apprprt ones, rtnl-emtv thrpst adopt an eductnl, cnfrntatv nd prsuasv apprch nd use varity of tchnqus ncludng modlng, bhvrl rhrsl, prblm-slvng, n-vivo dsnstztn, rtnl-emtv imgry, nd cgntv hmwrk assgnmnts.
Learning Theories
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies
Beck's Cogntive Therapy
CT focuses on mpct of cgntv schmas, automtc thots, nd cgntv dstrtns on emtns nd bhvrs. SCHEMAS r undrlyng cgntv strcturs nd ruls tht cnsist of cor blefs nd tht dtrmn how indvs codfy, ctrgrz, nd ntrprt thr xprncs. Cgntv schmas dvlp erly n lif as rslt of biolgcl, dvlpmntl, nd nvrmntl fctrs. thy cn b ethr 1) fnctnl or dysfnctnl, nd 2) drmnt or actv. Dprssgnc schmas nd othr dysfnctnl schmas may b drmnt until thy r actvtd by ntrnl or xtrnl strss, esp strss causd by cndtns simlr 2 thos undr wch thy orgnly dvlpd. Dysfnctnl schmas mpair realty tstng nd ablty 2 thnk rsnbly. thy r mnfstd n irrtnl autmtc thots nd r spprtd by cgntv dstrtns (errors n logc).
Learning Theories
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies
Beck's Cogntive Therapy
Common Cogntive Distortions
Arbtrary Inference - drwng cnclsns w/o crrabrtv evdnc; Overgenerlizations - drwng gnrl cnclsns on bsis of one evnt; Selective Abstrctn - attndng 2 dtail whl ignrng totl cntxt; Personalization - erroneusly attrbtng xtrnl evnts 2 onslf; Polarized Thinking - thnkng n dchtmus, "ethr/or" ways; and Emotional Reasoning - blevng thngs r a crtn way b/c one feels thy r tht way.
Learning Theories
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies
Beck's Cogntive Therapy
Ea psychlgcl d/o chrctrzd by dffrnt cgntv prfil. Dprssn nvolvs "cgntv triad" of a ngtv vu of onslf, th wrld, nd th futr. Cor blefs undrlyng cgntv triad fall nto 2 ctgres: thos assctd w/hlplssnss ("I'm pwrlss") nd ths asscitd w/ unlovablty (I'm unlkabl nd unattrctv). Cgntv prfil 4 anxty rflcts xcssv form of nrml srvivl mchnsms nd cnsist of unrealstc fears abt physcl threts. Anxus invds ovrstmt th rsk nd cnsqncs of prcvd dngrs. Cogntv prfil of Panic D/O cnsists of ctstrphc msntrprtns of mntl nd bodly xprncs.
Learning Theories
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies
Beck's Cogntive Therapy
CT dstngshd frm othr cgntv-bhvrl thrpys by svrl chrctrstcs. Frst, CT rfrd 2 as "collaboratve empiricsm" b/c it is founded on a cllbrtv thrpst-clnt r/s nd nvolvs gthrng evdnc nd tstng hypthses abt clnt's blefs nd asmptns; Scnd, CT is tme-lmtd tx, w/avrg lngth of thrpy bng 15 sessns, nd sessns r alwys strctrd nd gol-orntd. 1st sessns ordnrly addrsses fllwng gols: 1) estblshng rpprt nd trust; 2) sclzng th clnt 2 cgntv thrpy; 3) eductng clnt abt his/her d/o, cgntv modl, nd th thrpy prcss; 4) nrmlzng clnt's dffcltys nd nstllng hope; 5) dtrmng nd if ncssry, crrctng clnt's xpctatns abt thrpy; 6) collctng addthl info abt clnt's prblm; 7) dvlpng gol list. Thrd, whl focus of CT is on clnt's currnt xprncs, hstrcl mat'l may b addrssd n ordr 2 clrfy cor blefs. Fourth, b/c CT asums tht rlvnt cgntns becums asessbl nd modfybl only w/affct arousl, imgry, nd othr tchnqs may b usd 2 fostr affct. Fifth, questng is a prmry thrpeutc tool nd oftn tks th form of SOCRATC DIOLGUE (questns dsgnd 2 hlp clnt rech logcl cnclusns abt prblm nd its cnsquncs). Sixth, rlps prvntn is a focus thruout tx. For instanc, durng cors of thrp, thrpst mphszs clnt's part n causng chng n mood nd bhvr, nd, twrd th end of thrpy, th thrpst wrks w/clnt 2 dvlp a slf-thrpy plan.
Learning Theories
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies
Beck's Cogntive Therapy
Th prmry gol of CT is 2 altr dysfnctnl nd dstrtd asumptns nd blefs, nd CT mks use of a brod rng of bhvrl nd cgntv tchnqs 2 achv ths gol. Bhvrl strtgs nclud graded hmwrk assgnmnts, actvty schdulng, bhvr rhrsl, soc skils trng, nd rlxtn; cgntv strtgs nclud dwnwrd arrw (if so, thn wht?), questng th evdnc, dectstrphzng, mntl imgry (e.g., rplcmnt imgry), nd cgntv rhrsl. An erly hmwrk asgnmnt rquirs thrpst 2 keep "daly rcrd of dysfnctnl thots," wch hlps clnt nd thrpst ID clnt's AUTOMATIC THOUGHTS, wch rflct hs/hr undrlyng asumptns nd ntrcede btwn an evnt or stmuls nd the indv's emtnl nd nhvrl reactns.
Learning Theories
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies - Rehm's Self-Control Therapy
Rehm's blef is tht dfcits n 3 aspcts of slf-cntrl ncres persn's vlnrblty 2 drpssn nd mk it dffclt 2 deal w/dprssv sx whn thy ocur: SELF-MONITORING - dprssd indvs slctvly attnd 2 neg evnts nd 2 th immed (vs dlayd) cnsqncs of thr bhvr. SELF-Evaluation - indvs hu r dprssd mk inacurt ntrnl attrbtns nd cmpre thr bhvr 2 stds tht r xcssvly rgid nd prfctnstc. SELF-Rinforcement - dprssd indvs hv low rates of slf-rwrd nd hi rates of slf-pnshmnt. Slf-cntrl thrpy is a bref form of tx tht is usly cndctd as grp thrpy. Thrpy sessns nd bhvrl hmwrk asgnmnts crrspnd 2 three aspcts of slf-cntrl.
Learning Theories
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies - Self-Instructional Training
Meichenbaum orgnly usd slf-nstrctnl trng 2 hlp mplsv nd hyprctv chldrn prfrm acdmc nd othr tsks mre sccssfly. Lk REBT nd cgntv thrpy, slf-nstrctn is a cgntv rstrctrng tchnq tht nvolvs sbstitutng adaptv stmnts. Gol is 2 interpolate dscrmntv nd slf-cntrllng thots btwn stmuls situatn nd th indv's rspns. It is bsed pn VYGOTSKYS thry tht tru vlntry bhvr duz nt ocur untl ther is a shft from xtrnl 2 ntrnl lnguag cntrl. Slf-nstrctn nvolvs 5 steps.
Learning Theories
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies - Self-Instructional Training - Cognitve Modeling
Clnt obrvs as modl prfrms th tsk whl mkng slf-stmnts aloud. slf-stmnts nclud questns abt th natur of tsk, answrs 2 thos questns, spcfc nstrctns on hw 2 do tsk, nd slf-rnfrcmnt.
Learning Theories
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies - Cogntive Participant Modeling, Self-Instructional Training, Overt Self-Instrction, Fading Overt Self-Instruction & Covert Self-Instruction
Cgntv Prtcpnt Modlng: clnt prfrms tsk as modl vrblzs nstrctns. Ovrt Slf-Nstrctns: clnt prfrms tsk whl nstrctng slf aloud. Fadng Ovrt Slf-Nstrctn: Clnt whsprs nstrctns to slf whl crryng out tsk. Cvrt Slf-Nstrctn: clnt prfrms tsk whl syng nstrctns cvrtly.
Learning Theories
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies - Thought Stopping
thot stppng ntails elmntng obssv rumntns, slf-crtcsm, dprssv or anxty-arousng ideas, nd othr unwntd or unprdctv thots by usng such tchnqs as cvrtly yllng, "Stop, stop, stop!" or snppng a rbbrbnd plcd arond one's wrst. Thot stppng oftn cmbnd w/cvrt assrtn, wch nvolvs mkng altrntv assrtv slf-stmnts fllwng thot stppng.
Learning Theories
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies Stress Inoculation
dsgnd 2 hlp indvs deal w/strssfl evnts by ncresng thr copng skils. Tx dvded nto 3 phzs: 1) cgntv phz prmrly eductnl nd nvolvs hlpng clnt undrstnd hs/hr bhvrl nd cgntv rspnses 2 strssful situatns; 2)Durng skls acqstn phz, clnt lrns nd rhrses a varity of copng skils. Spcfc ntrvntns durng ths phz nclud drct-actn tchnqs (e.g., physcl rlxtn, plsnt imgry, arrngng "escap routes") nd cgntv tchnqs (e.g., rplcng neg slf-stmnts w/copng stmnts); 3) N fnl, applctn phz, clnt applys copng skls acquird 2 imagnd, filmd, nd n-vivo strss-prdcng situatns.
Learning Theories
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies - Self-Control Procedures
ncmpss varity of tchnqs tht shar chrctrstcs of bng admnstrd by clnt s thmslvs. Slf-cntrl prcdrs nclud slf-montrng, stmuls cntrl, nd rlps prvntn. Slf-ntrctn, thot stppng r oftn ncluded n ths ctgry.
Learning Theories
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies - Self-Control Procedures - Self-Monitoring
A cmmn intial prcdr n slf-cntrl prgrms nd othr cgntv-bhvrl ntrvntns, nvolvs havng clnt rcrd info abt frqncy nd cndtns srrndng trgt bhvr. Rslts of slf-mntrng prvid thrpst nd clnt w/spcfc info abt natur nd mgntud of bhvr so tht an apprprt tx strtgy cn b dvlpd nd effcts 2 tx cn b evald. Slf mntrng itslf oftn chngs natur of trgt bhvr n th dsird drctn. B/c of the reactv natur of slf-mntrng, it is oftn usd as an assmnt tool nd als 2 prmot bhvr chng.
Learning Theories
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies - Self-Control Procedures - Stimulus Control
Bhvr sid 2 b undr stmuls cntrl whn its prfrmnc or nonprfrmnc cntngnt on prsnc of crtn stmuli. Stmuls cntrl tchnqs r dsgnd 2 altr assctns btwn stmuli nd bhvr nd/or its cnsqncs nd nclud fllwng: 1) Narrowing nvolvs restrictng trgt bhvr 2 limtd set of stmuli (e.g., eatng only st mealtms); 2) Cue Strengthening ntails lnkng hvr 2 spcfc nvrnmntl cndtns (e.g., studyng n a prtculr lctn of the hse); 3) Fadng cnsists of chngng stmuls cndtns assctd w/bhvr (e.g., rplcng fetsh objct w.mre apprprt sxul stmuli)
Learning Theories
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies - Self-Control Procedures - Biofeedback
cn b clssfd as slf-cntrl tchnq snc it nvolvs hvng clnt lrn 2 modfy own bhvrs n d is bsed on prncpls of prnt cndtng. Trgt bhvr n biofdbk trng is usuly a physilgcl rspns tht is cnsdrd nvlntry sch as hrt rate, GSR, skn temp, bran wv actvty, nd blud glucs lvl. Whn usng ths tchnq, clnt is attchd 2 an EMG, EEG, or othr apprtus tht prvids immed nd cntinus prfrmnc fdbk abt th trgt rspns, usuly n th form of visul or audtry sgnl. EMG fdbk, e.g., is oftn usd 2 tx tnsn hdachs nd nvolvs trng prsn 2 rlx th frntlis muscls n th 4hed. Whn clnt duz so, immed fdbk is prvided.
Learning Theories
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies - Self-Control Procedures - Biofeedback
Sum nvstgtrs prpos tht effcts of biofdbk r du 2 ncres n feelngs of slf-ficacy or slf-cntrl rthtr thn 2 drct effcts on autonmc nrvus systm. #of studys found rlxtn trng 2 b as effctv as biofdbk 4 svrl prblms ncludng tnsn hedachs, hyprtnsn, gnrl anxty, nsomna, nd lwr bck pain. Sum evdnc tht biofdbk my b th tx of choic 4 Raynaud's dsez (nvolvs dcres n blood spply 2 fngrs nd toes) nd 4 crtn typs of urnry nd fecl ncntnc. Cmbntn of thrml biofdbk nd autognc trng (typ of rlxtn) found 2 b best apprch 4 migrn hedachs.
Learning Theories
Memory & Forgetting
Memory Processes
Encoding, Storage & Retieval
Acqusition and Recall of memories involves three processes: Encoding: a trnsltn of incmng stmuli n2 a cod tht cn b prcssd by bran. Altho encdng oftn autmtc, it is mre effctv whn it nvolvs dlbrt rhrsl. Storage - prcss of mntaing info n memry. Storg cn b dsrptd by svrl fctrs ncludng rtroctv nd proctv ntrfrnc nd bran trauma. Retrieval - rfrs 2 th rcvry of strd info. Rtrvl is fcltatd by use of rtrvl cues.
Learning Theories
Memory & Forgetting
Information Processing (Multi-Store) Model - Sensory Memory
Snsry Mdl (snsry rgstr): Snsry memry prvids bref strg of snsry stmuli. Whl snsry memry sems 2 b cpbl of strng a grt deal of info, ths info is rtaind 4 no mre thn a few scnds. Ther may b seprt snsry memres, one 4 ea of th snses. (Snsry Stor 4 audtry info clld "echoic store," whl stor 4 vsul stmuli rfrd 2 as "iconic store.")
Learning Theories
Memory & Forgetting
Information Processing (Mutli-Store) Model-Short-Term Memory
Info n snsry memry trnsfrd 2 shrt-trm memry (STM) whn it bcmes th focus of attn. STM hlds a lmtd amt of info, nd, w/o rhrsl, info n STM bgns 2 fad wthin 30 scnds. Ncdng n STM blevd 2 b prmrly acustc but my als b, 2 a lssr dgre, semntc, vsul, nd/or kinesthetic. STM cnsists of prmry memry (pssv memry storg) and wrkng memry. Miller (1956) prposd tht n rgrd 2 prmry memry, th avrg cpcty of STM is btwn 5-9 (7 plus or minus 2) dstnct units nd tht ablty 2 hld lrgr amts of info n STM du 2 th chunking (grouping) of rltd itms of info. 2 rmembr a strng of 21 #s, e.g., u mght chunk th #s n2 groups of three, rsltng n sevn dstnct units of info. Wrkng memry rspnsbl 4 mnpultn nd prcssng of info. E.g., it is wrkng memry tht allws u 2 rept th phon # u just found n th phon bk untl u dial th # on th phon.
Learning Theories
Memory & Forgetting
Information Processing (Multi-Store) Model- Long-Term Memory
Altho prcss nvolvd n cnvrtng info from STM 2 Long-Term Memory (LTM) is not wel undrstud, lkly du 2 typ of rhrsl: info mre lkly 2 b trnsfrd 2 LTM w/elbrtv rhrsl, wch nvolvs rltng nu info 2 xstng info, thn mtce rhrsl, wch nvolvs smply repetng nu info w/lttl or no ntrprtatn. Ncdng n LTM lrgly du 2 semantc, altho sum info my b ncded vsuly or acustcly. Cpcty of LTM sems 2 b unlmtd, nd sum xprts blev tht matl strd n LTM is prmnt. LTM cnsists of rcnt (scndry) memry nd rmot memry.
Learning Theories
Memory & Forgetting
Information Processing (Multi-Store) Model- Long-Term Memory
Xstnc of seprt shrt- nd lng-trm stors hs bn spprtd by studys of indv w/ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA, th typ of amnsa most assctd w/bran trama. Indvs w/antrgrd amnsa cn rcll info stord b4 trama but cnnt rtain nu info, sggstng tht info cnnt b trsnfrd frm shrt- 2 lng-trm memry. (Othr typ of amnsa, RETROGRADE AMNESIA, ntails loss of memry 4 evnts tht ocurd b4 trama.) Addtnl evdnc cums frm studys of th SERIAL POSITION EFFECT. Thes studys hv bn shwn tht, whn indvs r askd 2 rcll lst of itms immedly aftr redng th lst, th itms n th bgnng nd end of lst r rclld mch btr thn thos n th mddl. Ths is b/c itms n th bgnng of lst hv alrdy bn rhrsd nd stord n lng-trm memry, whl itms at end r stil n shrt-trm memry.
Learning Theories
Memory & Forgetting
Information Processing (Multi-Store) Model- Long-Term Memory
Altrntv 2 multi-stor mdl of memry is LEVELS-OF-PROCESSING apprch. Prposes tht dffrncs n memry r du 2 dffrncs n dpth of prcssng rthr thn 2 separate memry stors. Three lvls of prcssng: Structual, Phonemic, nd Semantic. Whn tryng 2 memrz wrd, u cn focus ethr on its strcturl, or physcl, prprtes (is wrd n cptl lttrs?); on its phnmic, or sound, prprtes (wht duz wrd rhym with?); or on its meaning. Meaning rprsnts th semntc lvl, wch is depst lvl of prcssng nd prducs th grtst amt of rcll.
Learning Theories
Memory & Forgetting
Types of Long-Term Memory
LTM cncptulzd as cnsistng of procedural nd declarative aspcts: Prcdrl memry stors info abt hw 2 do thngs ("lrng how"). Usd 2 acqr, rtain, nd mploy prcptul, cogntv, nd motr skls nd habts. Prcdrl memrys acqrd thru obsrvtn nd prctc nd dffclt 2 frgt. Dclrtv memry mediats acqstn of fcts ("lrng that or what"). Furthtr sbdvded n2 semntc nd episodc memry. Semntc memry ncluds knwldg abt lnguag, (wht wrds mean nd hw thy r usd), "cmmn snse" knwldg, nd info rltd 2 ruls of logc nd inference. Epsdc (autobgrphcl) memry stors info abt evnts tht hv bn prsnly xprncd. Epsdc memry affctd mre by nrml agng thn semntc or prcdrl memry. Flashbulb memry (vivd, dtaild imags of wht one ws dng at tm of drmtc evnt ocurd) r strd n epsdc memry.
Learning Theories
Memory & Forgetting
Types of Long-Term Memory
Sum nvstgtrs als dstngsh btwn implict nd xplict aspcts of LTM, wch rufly crrspnd, rspctvly, 2 prcdrl nd dclrtv memry. Implct memry is autmtc, whl xplict memry reqrs cnscus rcllctn. Th dvsn of memry n2 implct nd explct memry nvolv dffrnt bran strctrs: th hppcmps nd frntl lobes sem 2 mediat xplct memry, whl bsal gngla nd crbllm r mprtnt 4 mplct memry. PROSPECTIVE Memory cnsdrd anthr cmpnent of LTM nd is th cpcty 2 rembr 2 do thngs n th futr i.e., "rembr 2 rembr"). Rsrch nvstgtng th effcts of agng on prospctv memry found tht, whl oldr adlts oftn do lss wel thn yngr adlts on meas of prospctv memry undr cntrlld cndtns, n naturlstc sttngs, thy oftn do bttr b/c thy r mre lkly 2 mk use of xtrnl aids sch as lsts nd clndrs.
Learning Theories
Memory & Forgetting
The Accuracy of Memories
Th acuracy of memry affctd by svrl fctrs ncludng SCHEMAS, wch r cgntv strctrs or frmwrks tht nflunc how nu info is ncoded, strd, nd rtrvd. Mny dstrtns n memry r th rslts of ntrprtng info thru xstng schmas tht may ntroduc systmtc biases n2 memry. E.G., gvng a story a prtculr titl, wch actvats spcfc schma, hs bn found 2 nflunc how th story is ntrprtd nd ltr rclld. Memry als affctd by cnstrctn (nd rcnstrctn): indvs tnd 2 cnstrct thr memrys by cmbng lemnts of nu info w/xstng knwldg, wch cn caus naccurcys nd dstrtns. Studys on eyewtnss tstmony hv shwn tht errors du 2 cnstrctn cn b sbstntl snc xstng knwldg affcts wht we pay attn 2 nd rmembr abt an evnt nd wht we rcll abt th evnt at a ltr tme.
Learning Theories
Memory & Forgetting
Metamemory and Metacognition
Metamemory, or knwng how to, rfrs 2 a prsn's knwldg of hw 2 lrn or acqur nu info. Ncluded n mtamemry is knwldg abt rhrsl stratgys nd mnemncs. Mtamry prt of Metacognition (knwng abt knwng), wch is rspnsbl 4 knwldg of one's own cgntv rsrcs nd xcutv cntrl, or th ablty 2 mnpult nd rgult one's cgntv fnctns 2 nsur sccssfl tsk cmpltn. Whn wrkng on cgntv tsk, e.g., mtacgntn nabls persn 2 rcgnz wht prsn alrdy knws abt th tsk nd 2 mntor nd, chng prsn's prfrmnc whl wrkng on th tsk.
Learning Theories
Memory & Forgetting
Trace Decay Theory
Lrng prduces a trac, or engram, wch is a physlgcl chng n th bran tht dcys ovr tm as rslt of dsuse. Altho ths thry may sem 2 mk sns, ther r mny nstncs whn memrys r rtaind 4 lng periods w/o ntrvng use or prctc nd whn 4gtn memry of prvus evnt sddnly rclld.
Learning Theories
Memory & Forgetting
Interference Theory
prposes tht 4gtng ocurs whn th ablty 2 rcll 1 bit of info is affctd by info acqurd prvusly or sbsqntly. Intrfrnc is most lkly whn nu nd old info r simlr; whn th tsk nvolvs rcll (vs rcgntn); nd whn info 2 b rclld is unmprtnt or meanglss.
Learning Theory
Memory & Forgetting
Retroactive Interference
Rfrs 2 memry loss rsltng whn nuly-lrns matl ntrfrs w/prvusly-lrnd matl. An xprmnt evalutng effcts of rtroctv ntrfrnc: Exprmntl Grp Lrn A, Lrn B, Recall A. Cntrl Grp Lrn A, rest or unrelated task, Recall A. If cntrl grp rclls A w/grtr accrcy thn xprmntl grp, rtroctv ntrfrnc hs prbly ocurd. 4 exprmnt grp, lrng B ntrfrd w/ rcll of A.
Learning Theory
Memory & Forgetting
Procative Interference
Rfrs 2 memry loss rsltng whn prior lrng ntrfrs w/lrng or rcll of sbsqnt matl: Exprmntl grp lrn A, lrn B, rcll B. Cntrl grp rest or unrelated task, learn B, rcll B. If cntrl grp rclls B bttr thn Exprmntl grp, proctv ntrfrnc hs ocurd: 4 prtcpnts n exprmntl grp, old lrng (A) hs ntrfrd w/acqstn or rcll of nu matl (B). Rsrch on 4gtng hs found tht indvs 4gt less whn aslep th awk 4 an = amt of tme, wch sggsts tht 4gtng du 2 ntrfrnc (i.e., 2 evnts tht ocur whl awk) thn 2 dcay of memry traces ovr tme.
Learning Theory
Memory & Forgetting
Cue-Dependent Forgetting
4 gtng rslts whn cues neded 2 rtrv info from lng-trm memry r nsffcnt or ncmplt. Th tip-of-the-tongue phenmon blevd 2 b do 2 nadqut rtrvl cues.
Learning Theory
Memory & Forgetting Methods for Improving Learning & Memory - Encoding Specificty
Prncpls prpos tht th grtr th simlrty btwn way matl is ncoded nd th cues tht r prsnt at th tme of rcll, th bttr th rcll. Prdctn cnfrmd by rsrch on STATE_DEPENDENT LEARNING, wch hs shwn tht rcll of info sumtims bttr whn lrnr is n same emtnl stat durng lrng nd rcll. Als spprtd by dffrncs n accurcy of rcgntn nd rcll: Prfrmnc usuly bttr on meas of rcgntn b/c rcgntn itms prvid mre cues thn rcll itms.
Learning Theory
Memory & Forgetting Methods for Improving Learning & Memory - Elaborative Rehearsal
Info most lkly 2 b trnsfrd from shrt-trm memry whn elbrtv rhrsl mplyd - i.e., whn nu info mde mre meangfl by rltng it 2 xstng knwldg.
Learning & Memory
Memory & Forgetting Methods for Improving Learning & Memory - Mnemonic Devices
Mnemncs use imgry, org, nd/or cntxt 2 mprv rtrvl of info strd n LTM. Mny mnemncs mk use of imgry. METHOD of LOCI nvlvs vsuly assctng itms 2 b rembrd w/series of plces (loci) alrdy n memry. Prsn 1st forms imag of ea itm 2 b rembrd nd thn mntlly "wlks thru" a fmilr rm or bldg, plcng itm n vsbl lctns sch as crnrs nd on tbls nd chrs. 2 rcll itms, prsn wud agn mntlly wlk thru rm or bldg nd lk n crnrs nd on tbls nd chrs. KEYWORD METHOD usfl 4 paird assct tsks n wch 2 wrds must b lnkd 2thr. Mnemncs tht do nt mk use of imgry ncld turng wht hs 2 b rembrd n2 rhym. rsrch on mnemncs cnsistntly shwn tht vsul imgry pwrfl tool 4 hlpng peop rmembr vrbl info. Effctvnss of imgry illstrtd by peop hu hv ablty 2 form eidetic imges wch r xtrm clrty nd dtail.
Learning & Memory
Memory & Forgetting Methods for Improving Learning & Memory - Arousal
Lrng of a nu rspns affctd by arousl lvl. YERKES-DODSON LAW: modrt lvls of aousl maxmz effcncy of lrng nd prfrmnc, whl xtrmly low nd hi lvls r assctd w/dcresd effcncy. Th r/s btwn arousl nd lrng asums th shap of an nvrtd-U. R/s btwn arousl nd lrng als affctd by tsk dffclty: usuly, th mre dffclt th tsk, th lwr th optml lvl of arousl.