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11 Cards in this Set

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State the general function of the respiratory system? pg.152
-breathing
-gas exchange
-entrance of air into the body
State the pathway of the respiratory system including nasal cavities, pharynx and larynx? pg.152
Nose-Nostrils, turbinates,(nasopharynx), Mouth-Palate, uvula (oropharynx),Pharynx, larynx, trachea, Carina, Bronchi, Bronchioles, Alveoli
State the function of the turbinates in the nasal cavity? pg.153
Help maintain laminar (smooth) flow
Describe the structure and funciton of the larynx and the speaking mechanism? pg. 153
-beginning of the lower airway
-consists of several sections of cartilage
-2 pairs of ligaments form the vocal cords
-vibration of true cords produce sound and speech
-True vocal cords & the opening between them is glottis
State the roles of the visceral and parietal pleura in respiration? pg. 153
Plarietal-pleural membrane that lines the cavity (rib cage)
Visceral-pleural membrane that covers the lungs
-work together to help maintain normal expansion & contraction of the lung
State the changes in air pressure within the thoracic cavity during respiration? pg.159
During exhalation, the diaphragm contracts (moves inferiorly) creating a negative pressure in the chest cavity. The negative pressure results in air being sucked in & filling the lungs. Air is expired when the lung tissue collapses because of its natural elasticity. Exhalation is a passive process & normally requires no muscular effort.
Explain the diffusion of gases in external & internal respiration? pg.157
Diffusion is the process by which a gas dissolves in a liquid. At the alveolocapillary membrane, the alveolus & RBC are located very close together allowing diffusion of O2 & CO2 to occur. O2 is "offloaded" into tissues & CO2 and waste are loaded into the blood stream. CO2 is breathed out into the atmosphere.
Describe how O2 & CO2 are transported in the blood. pg. 156
O2 moves from the alveolus to the hemoglobin molecule of the RBC. CO2 flows from the blood into the alveolus
Explain the nervous & chemical mechanisms that regulate respiration? pg.158
-Main respiratory stimulus is accumulation of CO2 in the blood. Measured as PaCO2 on the arterial blood gases.
+CO2 -pH +ventilations
-CO2 +pH -ventilations
-Low blood O2 stimulates breathing but w/less of an effect.
-Medulla oblongata=controls process of respiration
Explain how respiration affects the pH of certain body fluids? pg. 157
Main respiratory stimuls is accumulation of CO2 in the blood. Increase in PaCO2=decreased pH which triggers increase in ventilation. Decrease in PaCO2 result in increased pH and decreased ventilations
Discuss the relevance of understanding the function & structure of the respiratory system to conditions commonly found in the field? pg.156
Individuals w/ reversible (Asthma) and progressive, irreversible airway diseases (Emphysema-COPD, Black lung, Asbestos, Chronic Bronchitis) demonstrate abnormalities of pulmonary function. Residual volume is increased & FEVI (forced expiratory vital capacity) is decreased indicating obstructive lung disease & decrease in vital capacity.