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56 Cards in this Set

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Learning & Memory
Glossary
Anterograde & Retrograde Amnesia
Anterograde amnesia: loss of memry 4 evnts nd info sbsqunt 2 trauma or othr evnt tht prcptatd th amnesia. It nvolvs an inablty 2 form nu memrys. Retrograde amnesia: loss of memry 4 evnts tht ocurd or info tht was acqurd b4 th trauma or othr evnt tht causd th amnesia.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Aversive Counterconditioning
Avrsv Countrcndtng (avrsn thrpy) bsed on countrcndtng nd rduces attrctvnss of a stmuls or bhvr by reptdly pairng it w/stmuls tht prduces undsrbl or unplsnt rspns. Pairng of etoh cnsmptn w/elctrc shk 2 rduc etoh use is xmpl of avrsv countrcndtng. N ths sitatn, etoh is CS nd elctrc shk is US.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Biofeedback
Provds indv w/immed nd cntnus fdbk abt ongng physolgcl prcss (e.g., mscl tnsn, blud prssr) w/gol of nablng indv 2 xrcs vluntry cntrl ovr tht prcss. It sems 2 b usfl 4 tretng Raynaud's dses nd crtn forms of urnry nd fcl ncntnc. 4 othr dsrdrs (e.g., hyprtnsn, tnsn hedchs) it is equly effctv as rlxtn.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Chaining
Cmbns clsscl nd oprnt cndtning nd is blevd 2 undrly acqustn of cmplx bhvr tht cnsist of indv rspnses (bhvr chans). It nvolvs estblshng a seqnc of rspnses w/ea respns or stmuls assctd w/it actng as a scndry rnfrcr 4 th prvus rspns nd a dscrmntv stmuls 4 th fllwng rspns.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Classical Conditioning (CS/CR, US/UR)
A nutrl (cndtnd) stmuls rptdly paird w/uncndtnd stmuls so tht th nutrl stmuls alon evntuly elcits th rspns tht is naturly prducd by th uncndtnd stmuls. Pavlov: meat pwdr ws US nd salivtn ws th UR. A tone ws th cndtnd stmuls. Rslt of pairng th tone w/ meat pwdr, tone evntuly elcitd salivtn - CR.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Classical Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery
Clsscl xtnctn is th grdul elmntn of a clsscly cndtnd rspns by rptdly prsntng th cndtnd stmuls w/o th US. Oftn, an xtngushd rspns shws spntaneus rcvry - i.e., it rcurs fllwng xtnctn.
Learning & Memory
Glossary - Cogntive Therapy (Schema, Collaborative Empiricism, Socratic Dialogue, Automatic Thoughts).
Beck's cgntv thrpy (CT) is a form of cgntv-bhvrl thrpy tht vus dprssn nd othr psychpthlgy as prdct of crtn cgntv phenmna ncludng dysfnctnl cgntv schmas, autmtc thots, nd cgntv dstrtns. CT rfrd 2 as "cllbrtv mpricsm" b/c of its mphsis on cllbrtv r/s btwn thrpst nd clnt. Cgntv thrpst oftn use Scrtc Dialog (questng) n ordr 2 hlp clnt rch lgicl cnclusns abt a prblm nd its cnsqncs.
Learning & Memory
Glossary - Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement
Whn usng cncurnt schdls of rnfrcmnt, ther r 2 or mre simultanus nd indpndnt schduls of rnfrcmnt, ea 4 a dffrnt rspns. Orgnsm mtchs its rltv frquncy of rspndng 2 th rltv frqncy of rnfrcmnt 4 ea rspns.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Contingency Contract
A typ of cntngncy mgmnt tht nvolvs a frml wrttn agrmnt btwn 2 or mre indvs (e.g., btwn thrpst nd clnt, prnt nd chld, tchr nd stdnt) tht clrly dfns bhvrs tht r 2 b modfyd nd th rwrds nd pnshmnts tht wil fllw prfrmnc of thos bhvrs. Bhvr chng may b rqurd by one or all prtys 2 th cntrct.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Differential Reinforcement
Dffrntl rnfrcmnt (e.g., DRA, DRO, nd DRI) an oprnt tchnq tht cmbns pstv rnfrcmnt nd xtnctn. Durng a spcfyd period of tme, indv rnfrcd whn engng n bhvrs othr thn th trgt bhvr. Altrntv bhvrs r rnfrcd, whl trgt bhvr xtngushd.
Learning & Memory
Glossary - EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing)
EMDR ws orgnly dvlpd as ntrvntn 4 PTSD. It cmbns rpid ltrl eye mvmnts w/xposur nd othr tchnqs drwn frm cgntv, bhvrl, psychdynmc apprchs. Sum rsrch sggsts tht its effctvnss duz nt dpnd on rpid eye mvmnts but nsted on xposur 2 feard evnt.
Learning & Memory
Glossary - Escape and Avoidance Conditioning
Escap cndtng is applctn of ngtv rnfrcmnt n wch trgt bhvr is escap bhvr. Avdnc cndtng cmbns clsscl cndtng w/ngtv rnfrcmnt. Thru avdnc cndtng, an orgnsm lrns 2 mk prtculr rspns n th prsnc of pstv dscrmntv stmuls so tht it cn avoid an unplsnt stmuls.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Fading
Rfrs 2 a) th grdul wthdrwl of prmpts whn tchng a nu rspns; nd b) a prcdur usd 2 elmnt an napprpriat stmuls-rspns cnnctn by grduly rplcng th napprpriat stmuls w/apprpriat stmuls so tht rspns bcums assctd w/apprpriat stmuls.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Foward Conditioning (Delay Conditioning)
N clsscl cndtng, fwrd cndtng rfrs 2 th prntatn of th CS b4 (or smultnusly w/) th US. Of the mthds of frwrd cndtng, dlay cndtng most effctv n prducng cndtnd rspns. N dlay cndtng, CS preceds nd ovrlps th US.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Higher-Order Conditiong
N clsscl cndtng, situatn n wch a prvusly-estblshd CS is usd essntly as a US 2 estblsh a cndtnd rspns 4 a nu cndtnd (nutrl) stmuls.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Information Processing Model
Info-prcssng (muti-stor) modl of memry dscrbs th ncdng, storg, nd rtrvl of nfo as nvolvng 3 seprt, but ntrctng, stgs: snsry memry (snsry rgstr), shrt-trm memry, nd lng-trm memry.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Information Processing Model
Sensory Memory
Prvids bref storg of snsry stmuli. Whl it sems 2 b cpbl of storng a grt del of nfo, ths nfo is rtaind 4 no mre thn a few scnds. Nfo n snsry memry trnsfrd 2 shrt-trm memry (STM) whn it bcums fcus of attn.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Information Processing Model
Short-Term Memory
STM hlds lmtd amt of nfo, nd, w/o rhrsl, nfo n STM bgns 2 fde w/in 30 scnds.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Information Processing Model
Long-Term Memory
Altho prcss nvolvd n cnvrtng nfo frm STM 2 LTM is nt wel ndrstud, lkly du 2 typ rhrsl: Nfo is mre lkly 2 b trnsfrd 2 LTM w/elbrtv rhrsl, wch nvolvs rltng nu nfo 2 xstng nfo. Cpcty of LTM sems 2 b unlmtd.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Insight (Kohler)
Insight lrng (th "aha" xprnc) rfrs 2 th apprnt sddn undrstndng of th r/s btwn lemnts n a prblm-slvng situatn.
Learning & Memory
Glossary - Interference Theory (Retroactve and Proactive)
Ntrfrnc thry prposes tht th nablty 2 lrn or rcll nfo du 2 dsrptng effcts of prvusly- or sbsqntly-lrnd nfo. Proactive ntrfrnc is th nablty 2 lrn or rcll nu nfo as th rslt of th effcts of prvusly-lrnd nfo; Retroactive ntrfrnc ocurs whn th nablty 2 rembr prvusly-lrnd nfo du 2 acqstn of nu nfo.
Learning & Memory
Glossary - In Vivo Exposure with Response Prevention (Flooding)
N vivo xpsur w/rspns prvntn is a clsscl xtnctn tchnq tht nvolvs xpsng indv 2 hi anxty-arusng stmuli (CS) w/o th orgnl US.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Latent Learning (Tolman)
Tolman's modl of ltnt lrng prposes tht lrng cn ocur w/o rnfrcmnt nd w/o bng mnfstd n actul prfrmnc mprvmnt. Rsrch shwd tht rats formed "cgntv maps" of mazs evn w/o bng rnfrcd 4 dng so.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Law of Effect (Thorndike)
Propses tht whn bhvr fllwd by "stsfyng cnsqncs" bhvr mre lkly 2 ncres or ocur agn.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Learned Helplessness
Thry of dprssn tht propses tht sum forms of dprssn r du 2 tndncy 2 attrbt neg evnts 2 ntrnl, stbl, glbl fctrs. Mre rcnt vrsn stats attrbtns mediat dprssn 2 xtnt tht thy cntrbt 2 sns of hplssnss.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Levels of Processing
Propses tht dffrncs n memry r nt du 2 dffrnt stors or stgs but 2 dffrnt lvls of prcssng. Th semantc lvl is depst lvl of prcssng nd leds 2 bst rtntn.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Metamemory & Metacognition
Mtamry rfrs 2 knwldg abt 1's own memry prcsses. Mtamry is 1 aspct of mtacgntn, wch rfrs 2 "knwng abt knwng" - i.e., awrnss nd mntorng of 1's own cgntv stat.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Mnemonics (Method of Loci, Keyword Method)
Mnemncs r memry stragys tht rly on imgry, orgnztn, nd othr tchnqs. Th mthd of loci is a mnemnc tht mplys imgry n wch itms 2 b rmbrd r mntlly plcd, 1 by 1, n pre-memrzd (familr) loctns; rcll nvolvs mntlly "wlkng thru" loctn nd rtrvng th itms. Th kywrd mthd, anthr imgry tchnq, is usfl 4 paird assctd tsks n wch 2 wrds must b lnkd.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Observational Learning (Guided Participation)
Bandura's obsrvtnl lrng thry prdcts tht bhvrs cn b acqrd smply by obsrvng sumone els (a modl) prfrm thos bhvrs; i.e., acqustn of bhvr du lkly 2 socl nfluncs nd tht lrng is cgntvly mediatd nd nvolvs 4 prcsses: attn, rtntn, prductn, nd mtvtn. th rsrch suggts tht guided prtcptn (prtcpnt modlng) is most effctv typ of obsrvtnl lrng, espcly 4 tretng phbc reactns.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Operant Extinction and Extinction Bursts
N oprnt cndtng, xtnctn rfrs 2 elmntn of a prvusly-rnfrcd rspns thru cnsistnt w/hldng of rnfrcmnt fllwng tht rspns. Oprnt xtnctn usuly assctd w/tmprary ncres n th rspns (xtnctn burst).
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Overcorrection
An oprnt tchnq usd 2 elmnt undsrbl bhvr. Nvolvs hvng indv crrct th cnsqncs of indv's bhvr (rstitutn) nd/or prctc crrctv bhvrs (pstv prctc). Ovrcrrctn may rquir cnstnt suprvsn nd/or phys guidnc.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Positive & Negative Punishment
N oprnt cndtng, postv pnshmnt usd 2 dcres bhvr nd nvolvs applyng stmuls fllwng bhvr. Neg pnshmnt als usd 2 dcres bhvr nd nvolvs wthdrwng stmuls fllwng bhvr.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Positive & Negative Reinforcement
N oprnt cndtng, pos rnfrcmnt usd 2 ncres bhvr nd nvolvs applyng stmuls fllwng bhvr. Neg rnfrcmnt als usd 2 ncres bhvr but nvolvs wthdrwng stmuls aftr bhvr.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Premack Principle
An applctn of pos rnfrcmnt tht nvolvs usng hi frqncy bhvr as a pos rnfrcr 4 low frqncy bhvr.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Procedural & Declarative Memory
LTM cncptulzd as cnsistng of prcdrl nd dclrtv aspcts: procdrl memry stors nfo abt how 2 do thngs ("lrng how"). Dclrtv memry mediats th acqstn of fcts ("lrning tht or wht"). It is furthr sbdvded nto semantc nd epsdc memry.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Prospective Memory
An aspct of LTM tht is rspnsbl 4 ablty 2 "rembr 2 rembr" (rembr a futr appt).
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Punishment
N oprnt cndtng, pnshmnt rfrs 2 a mthd usd 2 dcres a bhvr by applyng or wthdrwng a stmuls fllwng th bhvr. Majr dsadvntg of pushmnt is tht it suprsses (rthtr thn elmnts) a bhvr.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)
REBT's prspctv is that bhvr is a chain of evnts - A, B, and C - where A is xtrnl evnt 2 wch indv xpsd; B is blef th indv hs abt A; and C is th emtn or bhvr tht rslts from B. Emtnl or bhvr rspns 2 a xtrnl evnt du 2 blefs abt tht evnt rthtr thn 2 th evnt itslf. Ellis (foundr of REBT) blevd th prmry caus of nurosis is cntinul rptitn of crtn cmmn irrtnl blefs and thes blefs r th approprt trgt of thrpy.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Reciprocal Inhibition
A form of Contrcndtng dvlpd by Wolpe 2 allviat anxty reactns by pairng stmuls tht prduces anxty (CS) w/ stmuls th prduces rlxtn or othr ncmptbl rspns (US).
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Response Cost
A form of neg pnshmnt tht nvolvs rmvng a rnfrcr (spcfc # of points or tokns) fllwng a bhvr n ordr 2 rduc tht bhvr.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Satiation Versus Habituation
Satiation is cndtn of bng stsfyd or grtfyd w rgrd 2 prtculr rnfrcr. Satiatn is a prblm w/cntinus rnfrcmnt nd w/th use of prmry (uncndtnd) rnfrcrs. Satiatn must b dstngushd from hbtuatn, wch is prcss of bcmng accustmd (physlgcly nonreactv) 2 a stmuls as rslt of prlngd xpsur 2 tht stmuls. Hbituatn may ocur whn usng pnshmnt if th pnshmnt is initlly dlvrd at low ntnsty nd thraftr grdully ncresed n ntnsty.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Schedules of Reinforcement (Continuous & Intermittent)
N oprnt cndtng, cntinus rnfrcmnt nvolvs provdng rnfrcmnt fllwng ea emssn of trgt rspns. It is assctd w/rpid acqstn of a rspns nd a hi sucptblty 2 xtnctn. Intrmttnt schdls r schdls tht r nt cntinus. Skinner dstngshd btwn 4 typs of ntrmttnt schdls - fxd ntrvl, fxd rtio, varbl ntrvl, nd varbl rtio. Fxd ntrvl (FI) schdl nvolvs rnfrcng th orgnsm 4 ea prdtrmnd ntrvl of tme n wch it mks at lst 1 rspns; Varbl ntrvl (VI) schdl nvlvs prvidng rnfrcmnt aftr vryng amt of tme, w/avrg tme ntrvl bng prdtrmnd. Fxd rtio (FR) schdl nvolvs prvdng rnfrcmnt aftr prdtrmnd # of rspnses (aftr ea 10th rspns); Varbl rtio (VR) schdl ntails applyng rnfrcr aftr varyng # of rspnses, w/avrg # bng prdtrmnd. VR schdl assctd w/hi, stbl, rate of rspndng and th grtst rsistnc 2 xtnctn.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Schemas
Schema is knwldg strctr or frmwrk abt prtculr topic or prcss tht nfluncs how nfo nd evnts r ntrprtd nd rspnded 2.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Self-Instructional Training
A cogntv-bhvrl tchnq n wch indv lrns 2 mdfy maldptv thots nd bhvrs thru use of cvrt slf-stmnts. Ws orgnlly dvlpd as way 2 hlp mplsv nd hyprctv chldrn slw thr bhvrs nd guid thmslvs thru acdmc nd othr typs of tsks.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Serial Position Effect
Resrch hs found tht whn peopl r askd 2 rcll lst unrltd itms immdtly aftr rdng lst, itms n the bgning nd th end of lst r rclld mch bttr thn thos n th mddl. Ths is b/c itms n th bgnng of th lst hv alrdy bn rhrsd nd stord n LTM, whl itms at end r stil n STM.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Shaping
Shapng, or mthd of "sccssv apprxmtns," nvolvs tchng a nu bhvr thru prmptng nd rnfrcng bhvrs tht cum clsr nd clsr 2 th trgt bhvr.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
State Dependent Learning
Rsrch on sta dpndnt lrng hs shwn tht rcll of nfo tnds 2 b bttr whn lrnr is n same emtnl stat durng lrng nd rcll.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Stimulus Control
N oprnt cndtng, stmuls cntrl is prcss by wch a bhvr duz or duz nt ocur du 2 prsnc (or absnc) of dcrmntv stmuli. Pos dcrmntv stmuli sgnal tht bhvr wil b rnfrcd; neg dscmntv stmuli (S-delta stmuli) sgnal tht a bhvr wil not b rnfrcd.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Stimulus Discrmination and Experimental Neurosis
N clsscl cndtning, stmuls dscrmntn trng usd 2 tch orgnsm 2 rspnd w/CR only n th prsnc of crtn stmuli (n th prsnc of orgnl CS). Sumtmes, whn dscrmntns r dffclt, orgnsm wil xhbt xprmntl nurosis i.e., xhbts unusl bhvrs sch as rstlssnss, aggrssvnss, or fear.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Stimulus Generalization
N oprnt nd clsscl cndtng, stmuls gnrlztn rfrs 2 rspndng w/prtculr rspns 2 simlr stmuli. N clsscl cndtng, stmuls gnrlztn rfrs 2 rspndng 2 stmuli simlr 2 th CS w/th CR; n oprnt cndtng, th trm usd 2 dscrb rspndng 2 stmuli simlr 2 th dscrmntv stmuli w/th trgt bhvr.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Stress Inoculation
A cgntv-bhvrl tchnq usd 2 hlp indv cope w/strssfl nd othr avrsv stats by nhncng thr copng skls. It ncluds 3 stgs: cgntv (eductn); skls acqstn; nd applctn.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Systematic Desensitization (Dismantling Strategy)
A clsscl cndtng prcdur bsed on countrcndtng (rcprcl nhbtn). It nvolvs pairng hrarchcly-arrngd anxty-evkng stmuli w/rlxtn n ordr 2 elmnt anxty rspns. Rsrch usng th dsmntly strtgy sggsts tht xtnctn (rthr thn countrcndtng) rspnsbl 4 its effctvnss.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Time-Out
Form of neg pnshmnt n wch indv rmvd frm all opprtntys 4 rnfrcmnt 4 a prscrbd period of tme fllwng a msbhvr n ordr 2 decres th ocurnc of tht bhvr.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Thinning versus Fading
Thnng rfrs 2 prcss of rducng th prprtn of rnfrcmnts. Fadng rfrs 2 the grdul rmvl of prmpts.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Trace Decay Theory
prposes tht a loss of memry (4gtng) du 2 grdul dcay of memry traces or engrams ovr tme as a rslt of dsuse.
Learning & Memory
Glossary
Yerkes-Dodson Law
Thry indcts tht modrt lvls of arusl r assctd w/optml lrng nd prfrmnc so tht th r/s btwn arusl nd lrng tks th shap of nvrtd-U.