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13 Cards in this Set

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Punishment
form of conditioning that can eliminate unwanted behavior by the use of an aversive event contingent upon the occurrence of the unwanted response
Positive punishment
delivery of a physically or psychologically painful event following the occurrence of an unwanted behavior
Negative punishment (omission training)
loss of positive reinforcement due to the occurrence of an unwanted behavior.
Two types of negative punishment
response cost and time out
response cost
withdrawal of positive reinforcement when an unwanted response occurs
time out
period of time during which reinforcement for responding is unavailable.
three factors making punishment effective
severity
consistency
contiguity
Severity effect
Mild punishment produces little, if any, suppression of the punished response. An extremely strong punishing event is more likely to produce complete suppression of a punished behavior in both humans and nonhumans.
Consistency effect
For nonhumans and humans, punishment is more effective when it is administered in a consistent manner than when it is administered intermittently
Contiguity effect
In nonhumans and humans, punishment is more effective when it occurs immediately after the completion of the unwanted behavior than if the punishing event is delayed for a time
Pain-Induced Aggression
Punishment often leads to aggressive behavior. At least in humans, such pain-induced aggression apparently occurs because punishment elicits anger, and anger leads to aggression
Modeling of agression
children tend to use the same type of punishment that they have received. In addition, children often model punishment that is delivered to them, and there is a correlation between the use of punishment by parents and the level of aggressive behavior in their children.
CER theory punishment
punishment reduces the rate of ongoingbehaviors - all behaviors not just the behavior beingpunished