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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the difference between Declarative and Procedural Knowledge?
Declarative Knowledge: verbalizable knowledge

Procedural Knowledge: skilled behavior
What are the four forms of procedural knowledge?
Spatial learning
motor-skill learning
implicit learning
What is the difference between route knowledge and a survey map (cognitive maps)
Route knowledge is that of a series of routs in sequence (using episodic memory)

Survey map means to have an abstract image with routes in context like an aerial view (this employs semantic memory)
Describe the place vs. Response learning theories in rat spatial learning studies?
Tolman described a place theory, there rats knew the "place" of a goal

Hull described a response theory where rats reacted to stimuli with responses leading to the goal.
What is anosmic?
to be unable to smell
One explanation for why rats are using extramaze cues in the radial maze
When rotated the rat ends up making more mistakes
What is the Morris water maze?
where a platform is hidden inside a pool of cloudy water to which the subject must swim towards and sequentially remember in proceeding trials
Which anatomical part of the brain is associated with spatial learning?
the Hippocampus, namely on the right hemisphere
Define a Landmark
Elements of the environment that by virtue of distinctive features or meaning stand out
Two effects that occur due to spatial schemas
Distortion of recall
Facilitation organization
What is a common schematic organization we engage in when comparing a map to the environment?
Assuming "forward" direction in the environment is the top side of the map
Does organization occur in spatial learning?
Yes, as proven by monkeys who organized a route by least distance traveled and priority of 18 pieces hidden
Define Motor skills learning?
acquisition of precisely adjusted movement where amount direction and duration of responding corresponds to variations in regulating the stimuli
Three components of motor skills learning?
motor skills
One real world application of mirror drawing?
Two important controlling factors in motor skills learning?
What is the power law?
Where each increment in proficiency is a logarithm of the number of times practices....
example: X+x^2+x^3=
What schedule of learning is most effective in motor skills learning?
Spaced repetitions
When learning multiple tasks, what schedule of learning is ideal?
Spaced alternating schedule, where tasks are alternated within the day but sessions are spaced
Explain practice dependent and independent learning
Dependent: learning through practice

Independent: consolidation through sleep
In motor skills learning what type of reinforcement of KR (knowledge of results) is ideal?
Quick, frequent, detailed feedback
Why is it spaced KR resulted in better long term improvement?
Self guidance theory: Massed and consistent feedback created a dependency on feedback from external sources
Why is delayed KR better?
Participants develop their own detection capabilities:

Due to short term memory of motor skills rehearsed to encode information
Implicit learning is defined as?
Acquisition of complex environment independent of conscious awareness
One form of everyday implicit learning?
Grammar rules
What is the serial reaction time procedure?
Where a pattern of response type items are presented without telling the participant of a patter

Used to test implicit learning
Two ways unconscious awareness of learning is shown?
Performance but without ability to articulate why

Developing a "liking" feeling
One difference between priming and skill learning (procedural learning)
Priming: occurs after single presentation
Procedural: occurs after practice
Damage to what area of the brain causes deficiency in the motor components of learning?
Basal ganglia

like those with Huntington's Parkinson"s disease
How long does it take to become an expert?
10 years
Explain Andersons adaptive control of thought theory? (ACT)
1. Declarative Stage: practice of factual knowledge
2. Knowledge Compilation (Transition) pockets of information are consolidated into LTM
3. Procedural stage:Skill refinement: strengthening of procedures
What is the Vanishing instructions method?
Where entire steps are presented, which as learning occurs are increasingly erased
What is Errorless discrimination method?
Where discrimination of response is always right at the start, as errored responses disrupt the process of recall later on
Two ways to improve building design?
placing map accurately in accordance of actual direction of environment

Color coding floors for distinction
What are the four guidelines of better LTM storage?
Optimize conditions of training
Optimize learning strategy used
Achieve automaticity
Optimize retention conditions
Name three memory skills and use of?
Skilled memory theory: efficiency in encoding through partitioning information

Good map learners: Partitioning Maps into Visuospatial imagery

Acting: active experience where learning includes generating: meaning emotion and experiencing the information