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60 Cards in this Set

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What damage did H.M suffer?
bilateral loss of hippocampi, and parahippocampus
What symptoms does H.M. suffer from?
--ten years of retrograde amnesia
--profound anterograde amnesia
--retains ability to learn new tasks but does not know he knows them declarative vs. nondeclarative (or procedural) memory
What illnesses or other injuries can cause the damage H.M. suffered?
herpes simplex encephalitis, rupture of anterior cerebral arteries
What damage did N.A. suffer?
damage to left dorsomedial thalamus, both mammilary bodies and probably mammilothalamic tract
What symptoms does N.A. suffer from?
--impaired long-term, okay short-term
--no retrograde amnesia, is aware of deficits
--loss of declarative
--retains procedural
What damage does Korsakoff's syndrome cause?
damage mammillary bodies, dorsomedial thalamus, basal frontal lobes
What is the DSM name for Korsakoff's syndrome?
alcohol amnestic disorder
What symptoms does someone with Korsakoff's syndrome suffer from?
--significant anterograde amnesia
--some retrograde amnesia
--confabulation, denial of memory deficits
What damage did K.C. suffer?
damage to left fronto-parietal and right parieto-occipital areas, and to hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex
What symptoms does K.C. suffer from?
--retains semantic knowledge and procedural knowledge
--has lost episodic knowledge
within declarative memory: semantic vs. episodic
What are the four types of memory?
Iconic memory
Short-term memory
Intermediate-term memory
Long-term
How long does iconic memory last?
milliseconds to seconds
How long does short-term memory last?
seconds to minutes
How long does Intermediate-term memory last?
hours to perhaps days
How long does long-term memory last?
Perhaps permanent, though malleable.
What are the two types of declarative memory?
1) episodic memory
2) semantic memory
What are the three types of non-declarative memory?
1) skill learning
2) priming
3) conditioning
What is another term for non-declarative memory?
procedural
What is an example of episodic memory?
Remembering your first day at school.
What is an example of semantic memory?
Knowing the capital of France.
What is an example of skill learning?
Knowing how to ride a bicycle.
What is an example of priming?
Being more likely to use a word you heard recently.
What is an example of conditioning?
Salivating when you see your favorite food.
What are the main brain regions associated with memory in rats?
Amygdala
Caudate nucleus
Hippocampus
Extrastriate cortex
In rats, what aspect of memory is attributed to the Amygdala?
Affect
In rats, what aspect of memory is attributed to the Caudate nucleus?
own locomotor response
In rats, what aspect of memory is attributed to the Hippocampus?
space and time, with "space" or "spatial view" cells
In rats, what aspect of memory is attributed to the Extrastriate cortex?
sensory perception
What are the parts of the human brain system involved in declarative memory?
Hippocampus-amygdala-frontal system
What are the parts of the human brain system involved in non-declarative memory?
Caudate-cerebellar system
What parts of the human brain are used for encoding pictures?
right prefrontal (assumes left-hemisphere dominance) and parahippocampal cortex
What parts of the human brain are used for encoding words?
left prefrontal and
parahippocampal cortex
What parts of the human brain are used for consolidation?
hippocampus
Is the process of consolidation quick or lengthy?
It takes a considerable amount of time (2-4 weeks?)
What impact does emotion have on memories?
can enhance recall of emotionally salient aspects, but weakens recall of less-salient aspects
Why does the emotional aspect of memory affect PTSD?
It creates the potential of a positive feedback loop, exacerbating the PTSD.
What parts of the human brain are used for retrieval?
The hippocampus.
Is the part of the hippocampus used for consolidation and retrieval the same or different?
Different.
What parts of the brain are activated more in autobiographical memories?
right frontal and temporal lobes.
What does it mean for a synapse to be plastic?
It is capable of changing the strength with which it affects the post synaptic target.
What types of synapses are involved in memory and have shown plasticity?
neural chain
superordinate circuit
cell assembly
What are the six ways the can store memory by changing synapses?
1. Increase (decrease) amount of neurotransmitter
2. Increase (decrease) sensitivity of postsynaptic region
3. Increase (decrease) size of pre- and/or post-synaptic areas
4. Change modulation by another neuron
5. Make a new synapse
6. Shift which neuron inputs to the synapse
What part of the brain is responsible for long term potentiation?
Hippocampus
What are the three regions of the Hippocampus responsible for LTP?
CA1
CA2
CA3
What is the main type of LTP complex in CA1?
AMPA, NMDA receptor complex
What is the general series of events in AMPA, NMDA receptor complex?
1. Ca+2 ions enter along with the Na+ once the NMDA gate is fully open
2. This activates protein kinases that catalyze phosphorylation
3. Retrograde messengers enhance presynaptic neurotransmitter release
What protein kinases catalyze phosphorylation?
PKC
CaMK
PKA
TK
What role does CaMK play in phosphorylation?
increases conductance of AMPA receptor to Na+ and K+ ions and makes more receptors available
What role does PKC (and possibly PKA) play in phosphorylation?
activating cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB)
What role does CREB play in phosphorylation?
recruits transcription factors (i.e., the RNA fragments that do their thing on the endoplasmic reticulum)
Name some retrograde messengers.
NO, arachidonic acid
What type of genes do RNA fragments activated by CREB act upon?
immediate early genes.
What do the immediate early genes activated by the AMPA/NMDA receptor complex do?
govern growth and differentiation of cells by regulating late effector genes
What effect do Inducible cAMP early repressors have on memory?
they produce proteins that are antagonists of CREB; enough can prevent LTM
Is the NMDA receptor essential in memory?
No. Other areas encode memories differently.
What compounds are involved in the CA3 area of memory?
opioid peptides
What can happen when low concentrations of Ca+2 are present in the hippocampus?
Long-term depression - the opposite of LTP
What is the neurochemical theory of memory?
Short-term, intermediate-term, and long-term are three sequentially linked neurochemical processes.
The amygdala sends axons to what parts of the brain to modulate memory?
hippocampus and caudate
Can the amydgala be influenced by the hippocampus and caudate?
Yes