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114 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Thorndike's methods
cats, boxes, mazes, reward, push levelrs
Thorndike's 3 main principles and 1 minor principle
Law of Effect, Exercise, Readiness
Law of Spread Effect
Law of Effect
resp. that are followed or accompanied by succes wil be repeated
Law of Exercise
a resp repeated in the presence of a stimulus will become bonded to that stimulus
Law of Readiness
must be ready (satisfycing) forcing or making to do when not ready reduces motivaton (being able to stop is also satisfying)
Law of Spread Effect
act leads to satisfying consequences will be associated with other acts occurring with it (trial and error learning)
Tranfer of Training
to specific, related topics; increases as simlarity to stimulus increases for both verbal and motor tasks
fatehr of modern behaviorism, coined the term, rejected introspection, focus on observable measures
Watson beleived what about learning?
all learning is classically conditioned (thought = covert speech)
Classical Conditioning model
us --> ur
Cs + US --> UR
Cs --> CR
Aquisition period depends on what?
the interval btwn CS and US
optimal interval btwn US and CS
types of conditioning
simultaneous conditioning
same time
delayed conditioning
prsentation of CS preceded but overlaps US (most effective type)
Trace conditioning
CS terminated prior to US
Backward conditioning
US precedes CS; this does not lead to true conditioning (poss. "pseudoconditioning" d/t overgeneralization)
Delayed v backward cond
Bell + Food --> salivaton
Bell--> Salivation (CR)
Food + Bell --> UR
CR v. UR
less intense in both quantity and quality
occurs when CS is presented without US, eventually no CR
Reinforcement in CC v OC (operant cond)
CC Reinforcement is confirmaton of the US
OC Reinforcement is increase in voluntary behavior
Spontaneous recovery
overtime the CR will reappear wakly w/ the CS re-administered (ie extinguished responses are inibited, not forgotten)
experimental neurosis
when discrimination is difficult (confusion btwn usually distinct stim)leads to unusual behavior
Higher order conditioning
CS becomes the US
bell + food --> sal
light paired with bell
light --> weak sal
sensory preconditioning
pair 2 CS
condition one to --> CR
second may weakly --> CR
after CS isparied w/ US, a 2nd CS is introduced w/out US and blocks the CS --> CR
CR is only tied to experiemental situation, ot the CS ie exp. becomes the CS
pair an undesirable beh with an incompatible beg so beh is eliminated
techniques based on counterconditioning
systematic desensitization
assertivenss training
sensate focus
systematic desensitization
anx. inhibited by calm
train to relax; build hierarchy of anx stim; desens. in imagination; begin in vivo last
assertivenss training
beh rehearsal or practice invovles a hierarchy of anx beh & get fdbk from thx - calm interferes with panic
sensate focus
relax--> touching -> no pressure to have sex w/ graded hierarchy
reciprocal inhibition is related ot what concept and how does it work?
systematic desensitization
anxiety is inhibited by calm (opposite) through sympathetic/para action
why does systematic desensitization work?
through extinguishing the anxious response...NOT through Counterconditioning
techniques based on classical extinction
flooding, implosion therapy (and systematic desensitization)
expose to anx.-eliciting stim and rpevent avoidance
is relaxation used in flooding and why?
No b/c not trying to coutnercondition, trying to extinguish CR w/out presenting CS
in vivo v. imaginal flooding
in vivo most effective but may use imaginal if too anxious to do it
incubation effect
presentation of flooding increses fear, so use gradual exposure/extinction
rsch findings on flooding
1. in vivo better
2. prolonged exposure better
3. invivo (graded or flood) best w/ Agora. and OCD
Implosive therapy
like imaginal flooding but w/ psychodynamic themes (this is unessessary)
techs based on aversive conditioning
in vivo aversie cond
covert sensitization
aversive conditioning
noxious stimu (US) + CS (behavior) --> avoidance
e.g. Antabuse
in vivo aversive conditioning
used for what problems areas?
used on sub abuse, paraphilias, SIV
in vivo aversive conditioning works best when_____
1. program natural env;2. bio approrpaite stim is used,in same modality (Antabuse; 3. pt encourage to take self-control; 4. paired w/ + reinf of adaptive responses
when/how can you ethically use in vivo aversive conditioning?
use only when non-aversive failed, when health at risk; apply w/ competence; consult review panel
covert sensitization
pos when avoid neg. pairing
covert sensitization effectiveness
> eff. for paraphilias than obesity & addiction
most eff when paried w/ actual aversive stim
volunary beh the organism uses to oprate on the env and are under the control of env. consequences (R & P)
reflexive behavior automatically elicited by stimuli (target of CC)
any stim when applied or removed following a behavor that increases the liklihood the beh will re-occur
Postive R+ v Negative R+
positive invovles applying a stim to increase beh
negative invovles removing a stim to increase behavior
any stimulus when applied or removed decreases the liklihood of beh. occurring
postive punnishment v negative P-
postive invovles applying a stim to reduce behavior
negative involves removing a stimu to reduce beh.
skinner box measures what by which mechanisms?
operant strength by a) rate of responding or b) totoal # of resp. before extincton trials (no R+)
operant extinction
withdrawl of R+ from a previous Reinforced behavior leading to reduction of the beh.
operant extincton examples
learned helplessness (previously successful beh fails to produce results, stop even if conditions change)
reformulated learned helplessness
believes personal outocmes are unconrollable - low self worth and bad things are global & stable, internal
response burst
after removal of R+, behavior at first increases temporarily
behavioral contrast
when 2 beh are R+ separately and one is extinguished, the other increases
spontaneous recovery
after extincton, increase in behavior without reinforcement
e.g. pidg pecks 10/s at end of ext. trial, then 15/s at beg. on enxt trial
primary R+
inherently valuable
secondary R+
acquirs value through parings with primary R+
generalizaed secondary R+
AKA and def
generalized conditioned R+ = when paired w/ many types of primary R+'s, secondary yeilds more power (ie money)
schedules of R+
continuous, intermittent,
continuous R+
R after each response --> fastest learning, fastest satiaton, and fastest extinction - useful when establishing the beh.
intermittent R+ (when used)
best after learned b/c more resistant to extinction
intermittent R+ (types)
FR -fixed ratio
FI - fixed interval schedule
VR- variable ratio
VI- Variable Interval
fixed ratio schedule
after fixed # of responses, reinforce
eg FR-10 (10 press --> food)
piecework 10 shirts= paycheck
fixed interval schedule
after a certain period of time
FI 20s = food every 20s regardless of # of resp (paid every 2 weeks)
fixed interval schedule leads to what effect?
scallop effect: responses slow or nonexistant followng the R+, then increases --> rapid right before R+ is due
which R+ schedules produce lowest/highest rates of repsonding? most consistent rate of responding?
Fixed inerval (FI)
Variable ratio schedule
Variable schedules
which R+ schedule produce lowest/highest resistance to extinction? in general most resistant?
Fixed inerval (FI)
Variable ratio schedule
Ratio schedules
Variable ratio schedule (VR)
after variable # of *responses
e.g. V6 (ave 1 R+ per 6 resp)
gamblers: rel btwn behavior and R+ is unpredictable
Variable Interval Schedule
unpredictable amount of *time
e.g. surpirse quiz
Matching Law (you only work hard for what you get)?
when presented w/ 2 or more opportunities R+, the relative rate of responding will be proportional to the rel rate of the R+
Negative R+ is associated with increase in what 2 types of beh?
escape and avoidance
aversive sti (Neg R+) increases behavior that terminates the neg R+
ie press lever to end shock
combo of cc and neg R+
Mower's 2 factor theory of learing from aversive consequences
1. d/t cc various beh/obj/sit are avoided
2.avoid. is -R by temr of fear
what types of beh are hard to extiguish?
those learned by avoidance conditioning (e.g. phobias)
S-delta stimulus
cue that a particual beh will not be R+ (e.g. red/green light - peck - food only to green) red light = S-delta
beh to only one stim, not another (stim control)
series of unrelated and simple beh tied together
each response acts as both a secondary R for the preceding resp and disc stim for next
response generalization
R+ the target and similar resp. --> faciliates shaping (R+ successive approximations until learn one simple beh)
superstitious learning
accidental or coincidental pariing of resp and R+ (e.g. rian dance --> rain occasionally)
factors influencing the effectiveness of R+
1.> effective when follows beh
2. immediate is best
3. continuous best for new
intermittent best for maint
4. verbal clarification of rel
5. satiation > levels of R+
factors influencing the effectiveness P+
extreme & continuous; ASAP; consistent; verbal clar. and warning cues; R+ alt beh (only when target not being P+); should be maxed at outset or habituate; beh. will return once P+ removed
techniques based on operant cond.
shaping & premack principle
used with autistic children (Lovaas R+ speaking w/ mouth movmnts)
premack principle
use high prob beh to R+ a low prob beh (allow watch TV after study)
techniques based on punn and extinction
time-out, overcorrection, response cost, differential R+ for other behaviors
cuts off R+ for activity, form of extinction (away from R+ for problem beh); make sure T-O not R+
designed to eliminate some beh and promote alt.;correct neg beh. and repeated/exagg practice of alt. beh
response cost
-P+ removal pre-specified reward w/ neg beh.; e.g. take away privelage, highly effective w/ low side effects
differential R+ for other behaviors
combo of operant ext. and R+ don't R+ target (ext) and R+ all other beh; sue w/ autistic to stop SIV
differential R+ for incompatible beh
differential R+ for low frequency responding
contingency contracting
formal written contract w/ chil and thx that specifies target beh and R+/P+ (also marital prob quid pro quo)
increasing effectiveness of contingency contracting
1. info @ stratgey & expected outocmes
2. rewards and sanctions spec.
3. monitor contract and agreed
token economy
R+ (+ usually response cost)
bestif simple and immediate and ind. chosen R+; no generalization(unless in vivo)
cogntive learning theories (list)
Gestalt, Tolman's Cog LT, Social Leanring theory of Bandura, Harlow curiosity
Gestalt (Kohler)
insight learning (internal restructuring of the env)w/ prior trail and error exp
Zeignerk effect
better memory for imcomplete tasks (related to Gestalt theory of learning)
Tolman's Cognitvie LT
conditioning does not -->learning; need undersntading; cog. maps & latent learning (mot--> beh)
social learning theory (Bandura)
cc and oc and 3rd process: cog processes mediate determining the influence of stim and interp of env influ.
social learning theory (Bandura) - says about R+
does not need to be in past - underlies observational learning
4 mechanisms of observationallearning
1. attentional
2. retentinal
3. performance
4. R+(influencs all above)
what makes model more R+
high status, similar, multiple, more liked
Harlow's theory of learning
nature of task itself can be rewarding; if get R+ after, lose interest; faster if intersting end; learn to learn
Clark Hull's Drive Recution Theory
reduce drive is R+ for leanring
Miller & Dollard Drive Recution Theory
frustration --> aggression (or displaced)
if beh. redues fear --> recur (coping or neurosis/psychosis)
Miller & Dollard 2 types of drives (gradients)
approach & avoidance (always > intense); closer to goal,more intense the drive; apparoch/avoidane conflicts
instinct not operantly learned beh; contraprepared (goes against instinct)
R+ electric stim of medial forebrain bundle in hypothalmus