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45 Cards in this Set

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Backward chaining
A chaining procedure in which training begins with the last link in the chain and adds preceding links in reverse order.
Behavior chain
A series of related behaviors, the last of which produces reinforcement.
Chaining
In operant training, the procedure of establishing a behavior chain.
Conditioned reinforcer
Any reinforcer that has acquired its reinforcing properties through its association with other reinforcers. Also called conditioned reinforcer. (C’. primary reinforcer.)
Contrived reinforcer
Any reinforcing event that has been arranged by someone, usually for the purpose of modifying behavior. (C’. natural reinforcer.)
CR
In continuous reinforcement, the desired behavior is reinforced every single time it occurs. Generally, this schedule is best used during the initial stages of learning in order to create a strong association between the behavior and the response. Once the response if firmly attached, reinforcement is usually switched to a partial reinforcement schedule.
Discrete trials procedure
An operant training procedure in which performance of a behavior defines the end of a trial. (C’. free operant procedure.)
Dopamine
One of the brain''s major neurotransmitters and one source of a natural high. It is thought to play an important role in reinforcement.
Drive
In Hull''s theory of reinforcement, a motivational state (such as hunger) caused by a period of deprivation (as of food).
Drive-reduction theory
The theory of reinforcement that attributes a reinforcer's effectiveness to the reduction of a drive.
Epinephrine
An important neurotransmitter that is thought to be important in reinforcement. More commonly known as adrenaline.
Equilibrium theory
The theory of reinforcement that says a behavior is reinforcing to the extent that the organism has been deprived (relative to its baseline frequency) of performing that behavior.
Escape training
A reinforcement procedure in which a behavior is followed by the removal of, or a decrease in the intensity of, a stimulus. Sometimes called escape training. (C’. positive reinforcement; punishment.)
Escape-avoidance learning
A form of negative reinforcement in which the subject first learns to escape, and then to avoid, an aversive.
Extinction burst
A sudden increase in the rate of behavior during the early stages of extinction.
Forward chaining
A chaining procedure in which training begins with the first link in the chain and adds subsequent links in order. (C’. backward chaining.)
Free operant procedure
An operant training procedure in which a behavior may be repeated any number of times. (C’. discrete trials procedure.)
Generalized reinforcer
Any secondary reinforcer that has been paired with several different reinforcers.
Instrumental learning
Any procedure in which a behavior becomes stronger or weaker (e.g., more or less likely to occur), depending on its consequences.
Law of effect
The statement that behavior is a function of its consequences. So called because the strength of a behavior depends on its past effects on the environment. Implicit in the law is the notion that operant learning is an active process because it is usually the behavior of the organism that, directly or indirectly, produces the effect.
Motivating operation
Anything that establishes conditions that improve the effectiveness of a reinforcer. Also called establishing operation.
Natural reinforcer
Any reinforcing event that follows automatically (naturally) from a behavior. (C’. contrived reinforcer.)
Negative reinforcement
A reinforcement procedure in which a behavior is followed by the removal of, or a decrease in the intensity of, a stimulus. Sometimes called escape training. (C’. positive reinforcement; punishment.)
Negative reinforcer
Any stimulus that, when removed following a behavior, increases or maintains the strength of that behavior.
One-process theory
The view that avoidance and punishment involve only one procedure—operant learning. (C’. two-process theory.)
Operant learning
Any procedure in which a behavior becomes stronger or weaker (e.g., more or less likely to occur), depending on its consequences. Also called instrumental learning. See also law of effect.
Positive reinforcement
A reinforcement procedure in which a behavior is followed by the presentation of, or an increase in the intensity of, a stimulus. Sometimes called reward training, although the term reward is problematic. (C’. negative reinforcement.)
Positive reinforcer
Any stimulus that, when presented following a behavior, increases or maintains the strength of that behavior.
Premack principle
The observation that high-probability behavior reinforces low-probability behavior.
Primary reinforcer
Any reinforcer that is not dependent on another reinforcer for its reinforcing properties. (C’. secondary reinforcer.)
Reinforcement
The procedure of providing consequences for a behavior that increase or maintain the strength of that behavior. (See positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement; C’. punishment.)
Relative value theory
Theory of reinforcement that considers reinforcers to be behaviors rather than stimuli and that attributes a reinforcer''s effectiveness to its probability relative to other behaviors.
Response deprivation theory
The theory of reinforcement that says a behavior is reinforcing to the extent that the organism has been deprived (relative to its baseline frequency) of performing that behavior. Also called equilibrium theory.
Resurgence
The reappearance during extinction of a previously reinforced behavior.
Reward learning
Changes in behavior due to positive reinforcement.
Reward pathway
Formerly reward center, the neural pathways believed to be associated with positive reinforcement. It is thought to be an area in the septal region, the area separating the two cerebral hemispheres and running from the middle of the brain to the frontal cortex (part of the thinking area of the brain).
Reward training
A reinforcement procedure in which a behavior is followed by the presentation of, or an increase in the intensity of, a stimulus. Sometimes called reward training, although the term reward is problematic. (C’. negative reinforcement.)
Satiation
A reduction in the effectiveness of a reinforcer due to exposure to or consumption of the reinforcer. Food can be reinforcing when a person is hungry, but it loses some of its effectiveness with each bite.
Secondary reinforcer
Any reinforcer that has acquired its reinforcing properties through its association with other reinforcers. Also called conditioned reinforcer. (C’. primary reinforcer.)
Shaping
In operant training, the procedure of reinforcing successive approximations of a desired behavior.
Sidman avoidance procedure
An escape avoidance training procedure in which no stimulus regularly precedes the aversive stimulus. Also called unsignaled avoidance. Sign tracking See autoshaping.
Task analysis
The procedure of identifying the component elements of a behavior chain.
Three-term contingency
The essential elements of all operant earning, often represented by the letters ABC, for antecedent, behavior, and consequences.
Two-process theory
The view that avoidance and punishment involve two procedures—Pavlovian and operant learning. (C’. one-process theory.)
Unsignaled avoidance
An escape avoidance training procedure in which no stimulus regularly precedes the aversive stimulus. Also called unsignaled avoidance. Sign tracking See autoshaping.