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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
LMX theory definition
-conceptualizes leadership as a process
-centered on interactions between leader and sub
dimensions of leadership
-LMX makes the dyadic relationship between leaders and followers the focal point of the leadership process
development
LMX theory first described by Dansereau, Graen, and Haga (1975)
revisions
-theory has undergone a number of revisions since its inception and continues to be of interest to researchers
assumption
-LMX theory challenges the assumption that leaders treat followers in a collective way, as a group
-directed attention to the differences that might exist between the leader and each of his/her followers
early studies
-first called vertical dyad linkage (VDL)
-focus on the vertical linkages leaders formed with each of their followers
-leader's relationship to a work unit viewed as a series of vertical diads
early studies
-researchers found two general types of linkages (relationships)--based on:
a. expanded/negotiated role responsibilities = in-group
b. formal employment contract (defined roles)= out-group
-relationships marked by formal communication based on job descriptions
in-group/out-group status
-based on how well subordinate works with the leader and vice versa
-dependent on how subordinates involve themselves in expanding their role responsibilities with the leader
-becoming the in-group: involves sub. negotiations in performing activities beyond the formal job description
in-group
-more information, influence, confidence, and concern from leader
-more dependable, highly involved and communicative than out-group
out-group
-less compatible with leader
-usually just come to work, do the job, and go home
later studies
-addresses how LMX theory was related to organizational effectiveness
-focus on the quality of LMX resulting in positive outcomes for
a. leaders.
b. followers.
c. groups
d. organizations in general
later studies
-high quality LMX resulted in
a. less employee turnover
b. more positive performance evaluations
c. higher frequency of promotions
d. greater organizational commitment
e. more desirable work assignments
f. better job attitudes
g. more attn. and support from the leader
h. greater participation
i. faster career progress
leadership making
-prescriptive approach: emphasizes that a leader should develop a high quality exchange with all subordinates
- 3 phases: stranger, acquaintance, mature partnership
stranger phase
-roles are scripted
-influences are one way
-low quality exchanges
-self interest rather than good of the group
acquaintance phase
-begins with an "offer" by leader/sub for improved career oriented social exchanges
-testing period for both assessing whether a. sub is interested in taking on new roles and b. leader is willing to provide new challenges
-shift from formal interactions to new ways of relating
-improved trust and respect
-less focus on self interest, more on goals of group
mature partnership phase
-high quality LMX
-experience high degree of trust, respect, and obligation
-tested relationship and found it dependable
-high degree of reciprocity between leaders and subordinates
-may depend on each other for favors and special assistance
-highly developed patterns of relating that produce positive outcomes for both themselves and the organization
-partnerships are transformational: move beyond self interest to accomplish greater good of the team and organization
how LMX theory works
-describes leadership
-prescribes leadership
-dyadic relationship
-suggests important to recognize the in-group and out-group within an org.
-signif. differences in how goals are accomplished using in-out groups
-relevant differences in in-out group behaviors
what leader does
-forms special relationships with everyone
-offer an opportunity for new roles/responsibilities
-nurture high quality exchanges
-focus on how to build trust and respect with everyone
strengths
-LMX theory validates how people within org. relate to one another and the leader
-the only theory that makes the dyadic relationship at the focus
-importance of communication
-solid research
criticisms
-appears unfair and discriminatory because it inadvertently supports dvlpmt of privileged groups in the workplace
-basic theoretical ideas are not fully developed
-measurement of LMX is being questioned
application
-applicable to all levels of mgmt
-directs managers to assess their leadership from a relationship perspective
-sensitizes managers to how in-out groups develop within their work unit
-can be used to explain how individuals create leadership networks throughout an organization
-can be applied in different types of org.: volunteer, business, edu., and gov't.