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32 Cards in this Set

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Usage: Present indicative: Tell about what is happening now -
Example: Maintenant, vous étudiez le français. 143
Usage: Present indicative: Make generalizations or speak about habitual actions -
Example: Ces étudiants sont tous intelligents. 143
Usage: Present indicative: Indicate what is going to happen in the near future -
Example: Ce soir, nous avons une fête chez le professeur. 143
Usage: Present indicative: Indicate what is going to happen in the near future using aller+inifinitive -
Example: Ell va étudier en France l'année prochaine. 143
Usage: Present indicative: Indicate what has just happened using viner de+infinitive -
Example: Ses parents viennent de recevoir son relevé de notes. 143
Usage: Present indicative: Indicate that an action that started in the past is continuing into the present using depuis.
Example: Depuis cinq ans, je rêve de parler russe sans accent. 143
Formation: Present indicative: -er verbs (assister, passer, étudier, discuter, aimer, etc.)
Example: je passe, tu passes, il/ell/on passe, nous passons, vous passez, ills/elles passent 143/144
Formation: Present indicative: -er verbs special rules (-ger)
Example: partager, add -eons in the nous form: partageons 144
Formation: Present indicative: -er verbs special rules (-cer)
Example: commencer, change c to ç in the nous form: commençons 144
Formation: Present indicative: -er verbs special rules (appeler, jeter)
Example: appeler, jeter verbs je, tu, il, and ils forms duplicate the letter before -er:

j'appelle, tu appelles, il appelle, ils appellent (nous appelons, vous appelez)

je jette, tu jettes, il jette, ils jettent (nous jetons, vous jetez) 144
Formation: Present indicative: -er verbs special rules (acheter, modeler)
Example: acheter and modeler verbs je, tu, il, and ils forms change the e to an è:

j'achète, tu achètes, il achète, ils achètent (nous achetons, vouz achetez) 144
Formation: Present indicative: -er verbs special rules (préférer, sécher)
Example: préférer and sécher verbs je, tu, il, and ils forms change the last é to an è:

je préfère, tu préfères, il préfère, ils préfèrent, (nous préférons, vous préférez) 144
Formation: Present indicative: -ir verbs (réussir, choisir, agir, finir, etc.)
Example: je choisis, tu choisis, il choisit, nous choisissons, vouz choisissez, ils choisissent 145
Formation: Present indicative: -ir verbs special verbs (partir, sortir, sentir, dormir)
Example: je pars, ru pars, il part, nous partons, vouz partez, ils partent 145
Formation: Present indicative: -ir verbs special verbs (offrir, ouvrir, couvrir, souffrir)
Example: j'offre, tu offres, il offre, nous offrons, vouz offrez, ils offrent 145
Formation: Present indicative: -re verbs (rendre, répondre, entendre)
Example: je rends,
tu rends,
il rend,
nous rendons,
vous rendez,
ils rendent
145
Pronominal verbs
je me,
tu te,
il se,
nous nous,
vous vous,
ils se
145
Pronominal verbs: reciprocal verbs
Express the idea that the subject and the object are doing something to each other

Example: Les étudiants se parlent. (The students are talking to each other. Without "se" it would say the students are talking.)

Nous nous aidons dan ce cours. (We help each other in this course.) 146
Pronominal verbs: reflexive verbs
Express the idea that the subject is doing something to himself or herself

Example: Les enfants se calment. (The children calm (themselves) down.)

L'étudiant se réveille. (The student wakes (himself) up.) 146
Pronominal verbs: idiomatic pronominal verbs
Appear with a reflexive pronoun, but the reflexive pronoun may not be translatable into English

Cet étudiant se débrouille bien quand il parle français. (This student gets along well when he speaks French.)

Ils ne s'intéressent qu'à mes résultats scolaires. (They are only interested in how I do at school.)

Elle s'inquiéte de ses notes. (She worries about her grades.)
Infinitive: Usage, 2 verbs
When two verbs follow each other, with no conjunction (like que) between them, the first verb is conjugated and the second verb remains an infinitive.

Example: Je veux suivre ce cours. 146
Infinitive: Usage, pronominal (reflexive)
When pronominal (reflexive) verbs are used as infinitives following a conjugated verb, the relfexive pronoun changes to agree with the subject of the main verb.

Example: Nous espérons nous inscrire sans problèmes. (We hope to register without problems.)

Est-ce que tu peux te débrouiller en français? (Can you get along in French?) 147
Infinitive: Usage, preposition
A verb appears in infinitive form following a preposition (except en).

Example: On n'obtient pas un diplôme sans avoir assez D'U.V. (One doesn't graduate without having enough credits.) 147
Infinitive: Usage, après
After the preposition après, the past infinitive must be used.

Example: Après avoir fini ses études, elle est retournée chez ses parents. (After having finished her studies, she went back to her parents' house.) 147
Infinitive: Usage, subject
An infinitive can be the subject of a sentence.

Example: Bachoter la veille d'un examen n'est pas toujours une bonne idée. (Cramming the night before an exam is not always a good idea.) 147
Infinitive: Formation, past
Formed with the infinitive avoir or etre + the past participle of the main verb

Example:

étudier - avoir étudié
rendre - avoir rendu
rentrer - être rentré(e)(s)
s'inscrire - s'être inscrit(e)(s)

etre past participles must agree with the subject of the sentence.

ne pas go infront of the infinitive 147 148
Imperative: Formation, 2nd person singular (tu form of present)
Someone you know well.

Example: Réponds!
Finis tes études!
Fais tes devoirs!

For -er verbs and similar, drop the -s from the tu form.

Example: Ne parle pas!
Ecoute bien!

Pronominal verbs keep the reflexive pronoun, which changes from te to toi when it follors the affirmative imperative.

Example: Débrouille-toi!
Rappelle-toi les devoirs!
148
Imperative: Formation, 1st person plural (nous form of present)
For commands in which the speaker is including himself.

Example: Assistons à cette conférence!
Remercions le prof! 149
Imperative: Formation, 2nd person plural (vous form of the present)
For commands to more than one person or to someone you do not know well.

Example: Ecoutez!
Taisez-vous! 149
Three imperative verbs and their forms
Avoir - Aie! Ayons! Ayez!
Etre - Sois! Soyons! Soyez!
Savoir - Sache! Sachons! Sachez! 149
Negative imperative
The ne precedes the verb, and the pas (or other negative form) follows. If there is a reflexive pronoun it will appear after the ne, in front of the verb.

Example: Ne vous disputez pas! 149
Fair causative
To indicate that the subject of the sentence is having something done (and not doing it himself) use the verb faire plus an infinitive.

Example: Quand je m'endors en classe, le prof me fait écrire des phrases au tableau. (When I go to sleep in class, the professor makes me write sentences on the board.) 149